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The previous volume contained a history of the 
towns of Providence and Warwick to 1649 and of the 
Colony to 1647. This volume covers the towns of 
Portsmouth and Newport. As the early Portsmouth 
town records have been carefully printed and are easily 
accessible, those after the reunion of the two towns 
(1640) have not been included in this volume. 

The court records which are printed in this volume 
have been transcribed from a manuscript volume 
entitled "Rhode Island Colony Records 1646-1669." 
This volume is in the custody of the Secretary of the 
State. It contains the minutes of the General Assem- 
bly, the minutes of the Aquidneck circuit courts, the 
minutes of the Colony Court of Trials, a large number 
of deeds, and a few vital records. The entries are not 
in chronological sequence, but seem to have been 
entered somewhat at random. The minutes of the 
General Assembly were transcribed in 1822 by Charles 
Gyles and subsequently printed in Bartlett's "Rhode 
Island Colonial Records." The minutes of the Aquid- 
neck court are printed in the present volume. The 
minutes of the Court of Trials are being transcribed by 
the Rhode Island Historical Society. The land records 
have not as yet been printed, transcribed or even 
abstracted, except in a few isolated instances. 

H. M. C. 



I. The Visit of Verrazzano i 

II. The Voyage of Block — The Early Use of the 

Name Rhode Island 12 

III. The Organization of the Government — The 

Search for a Location — The Adoption of 

A Dating System 16 

IV. The Deed of Aquidneck — The Gift of Dyre 

Island 24 

V. PocASSET Under the Judge 32 

VI. PocAssET Under the Judge and Elders ... 47 

VII. The Coup d'Etat of 1639 55 

VIII. Portsmouth Under the Hutchinsons .... 62 

IX. The Settlement of Newport 69 

X. Religious Affairs at Aquidneck 84 

XI. The Union of Newport and Portsmouth . . 94 

XII. The Acquidneck Government in 1641 . . . 107 

XIII. Early Residents of Aquidneck 116 

XIV. The Aquidneck Government from 1642 to 1644 121 
XV. Aquidneck Quarter Court Records . . . . 132 

XVI. Contemporary Letters 166 



Page of " John Clark Bible " 22 

William Coddington's House 44 

Henry Bull's House 64 

Title Page of John Clark's Book 82 

Roger Williams' Compass 90 

Window from the Coddington House (outside) . . . . no 

Window from the Coddington House (inside) . . . . 124 

Balusters from the Coddington House 140 

William Coddington's Gravestone 168 


Aspinwall=Aspinwall Notarial Records. (Printed.) 

I.R. = Records of the Island of Rhode Island. 

M.C.R. = Massachusetts (Colonial) Court Records. 

M.H.S.C. = Massachusetts Historical Society Collections. 

P.C.R. = Plymouth Colony Records. 

Po.R. = Portsmouth Records. (Printed.) 

R.I.C.R. = Rhode Island Colonial Records. 

R.I.H.S.P. = Rhode Island Historical Society Proceedings. 

R.I.L.E. = Rhode Island Land Evidences. 

Winthrop=The History of New England by John Winthrop. 

Documentary History of 
Rhode Island 



ALTHOUGH the history of the political entities of 
Newport and Portsmouth begins with the visit of the 
Antinomian leaders to Aquidneck in March, 1637/8, yet 
there is an interesting prelude in the contemporary accounts 
of two earlier visits to the island. 

On Thursday, 21 April, 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano, a 
French corsair, then perhaps better known as Juan Florentin, 
a name derived from his ItaHan birthplace, sailing in the 
"Delfina" under the banner of Francois I of France, 
dropped anchor in Newport Harbor. Verrazzano, on board 
the "Delfina" at Dieppe, 8 July, 1524, writing in ItaHan, 
but signing his name in Latin, Janus Verazzanus, gave 
the following description of his visit to Newport. 

**We weied Ancker, and sayled towarde the East, for so 
the coast trended, and so alwayes for 50. leagues being in 
the sight thereof wee discovered an Ilande in forme of a 
triangle, distant from the maine lande 3. leagues, about the 
bignesse of the Ilande of the Rodes, it was full of hills 
covered with trees, well peopled, for we sawe fires all along 
the coaste, wee gave the name of it, of your Maiesties mother, 
not staying there by reason of the weather being contrarie. 
And wee came to another lande being 15. leagues distant 


from the Ilande, where wee founde a passing good haven, 
wherein being entred we founde about 20. small boates of 
the people which with divers cries and wondrings came 
about our shippe, comming no nerer then 50. paces towards 
us, they stayed and behelde the artificialnesse of our ship, 
our shape i^ apparel, tha they al made a loud showte 
together declaring that they rejoyced: when we had some- 
thing animated them using their geasters, they came so 
neare us that wee cast them certaine bells and glasses and 
many toyes, whiche when they had received they lookte on 
them with laughing i^ came without feare aborde our ship. 
There were amongst these people 2. kings of so goodly 
stature and shape as is possible to declare, the eldest was 
about 40 yeeres of ag, the second was a yong man of 20 
yeres old. Their apparell was on this maner, the elder had 
upo his naked body a harts skin wrought artificialie with 
divers branches like Damaske, his head was bare with the 
haire tyed up behinde with divers knottes: About his 
necke he had a large chaine, garnished with divers stones of 
sundrie colours the young man was almost appareled after 
the same manner. This is the goodliest people and of the 
fairest conditions that wee have found in this our voyage. 
They exceed us in bignes, they are of the colour of brasse, 
some of the encline more to whitnes : others are of yellowe 
colour, of comely visage with long ^ blacke heire which 
they are very carefuU to trim and decke up, they are blacke 
and quicke eyed. I write not to your Maiestie, of the other 
parte of their bodie, having all suche proportion as apper- 
tayneth to anye handsome man. The women are of the like 
conformitie and Beawtie, verie handsome and well favoured, 
they are as well mannered and continente as anye women, 
of good education, they are all naked save their privie partes 
which they cover with a Deares skinne braunched or em- 
brodered as the man use: there are also of them whiche 
weare on their armes verie riche skinnes of leopardes, they 


iorne their heades with divers ornamentes made of their 
>vne heire, whiche hange downe before on both sides their 
restes, others use other kinde of dressing them selves like 
nto the w^omen of Egypt and Syria, these are of the elder 
)rte: and when they are married they weare divers toyes, 
:cording to the usage of the people of the East as well man 
! women. 

Among whom wee sawe many plates of wrought coper, 
hich they esteeme more then golde, which for the colour 
ley make no accompt of, for that among all other it is 
)unted the basest, they make most accompt of Azure and 
id. The things that they esteemed most of al those which 
e gave them were bels, cristall of Azure colour, and other 
)ies to hang at their eares or about their necke. They did 
Dt desire cloth of silke or of golde, muche lesse of any other 
)rte, neither cared they for thinges made of Steele and 
on, which wee often shewed them in our armour whiche 
ley made no wonder at, and in beholding them they onely 
;ked the arte of making them: the like they did at our 
asses, which whe the behelde, they sodainely laught and 
ive them us againe. They are very liberal for they give 
lat which they have, we became great friendes with these, 
id one day wee entred into the haven with our shippe, 
here as before wee rode a league of at sea by reason of the 
)ntrary weather. They came in great companies of their 
nail boates unto the ship with their faces all bepainted with 
ivers colours, shewing us yt it was a signe of ioy, bringing 
3 of their vidluals, they made signes unto us where wee 
light safest ride in the haven for the safegarde of our shippe 
eeping still our companie: and after we were come to an 
ncker, we bestowed fifteene dayes in providing our selves 
lany necessary things, whether every day the people 
ipayred to see our ship bringing their wives with them, 
hereof they are very ielous: and they themselves entring 
arode the shippe and stayinge there a good space, caused 


their wives to stay in their boates, and for al the intreatie 
we could make, offering to give them divers things, we 
could never obtaine that they would suffer them to come 
aborde our ship. And oftentimes one of the two kings com- 
ming with his queene, and many gentlemen for their pleasure 
to see us, they all stayed on the shore two hundred paces 
fro us, sending a smal boate to give us intelligece of their 
comming, saying they would come to see our shippe, this 
they did in token of safetye, and assoone as they had answere 
from us they came immediately, and having stayed a while 
to behold it, they wondered at hearing the cryes and noyes 
of the marriners. The queene and her maids stayed in a 
very light boate, at an Hand a quarter of a leage off, while 
the king abode a long space in our ship uttering divers 
conceites with geastures, viewing with great admiration, all 
the furniture of the shippe, demaunding the propertie of 
everie thing perticularly. He tooke likewise great pleasure 
in beholding our apparell and in tasting our meates, and so 
courteously taking his leave departed. And sometimes our 
men staying for two or three dayes on a little Ilande nere the 
ship for divers necessaries, (as it is ye use of seamen) he 
returned with 7. or 8. of his gentlemen to see what we did, 
and asked of us oft times if wee meant to make any long 
aboade there, offering us of their provision: then the King 
drawing his bowe and running up and downe with his gentle- 
men, made much sporte to gratifie our men, wee were often- 
times within the lande 5. or 6. leagues, which we found as 
pleasant as is possible to declare very apt for any kinde pf 
husbandry of corne, wine, and oyle: for that there are plaiiies 
25. or 30. leagues broad, open and without any impediment 
of trees and such fruitfulnerse, that any seede being sowne 
therein, will bring forth most excellent fruite. We entred 
afterwards into the woods which wee found so great and 
thicke, that any armie were it never so great might have hid 
it selfe therein, the trees whereof are okes, cipres trees, and 


Other sortes unknowen in Europe. We found Pomi appii, 
Damson trees, and Nutte trees, and many other sorts of 
fruits differing fro ours: there are beasts in great abundance, 
as hartes, deares, leopardes, and other kinds which they take 
with their nets iff bowes which are their chiefe weapons, the 
arrowes whiche they use are made with great cunning, and 
in steade of iron, they head them with smeriglio, wt jasper 
stone, y hard marble iff other sharp stones which they use 
in stead of iron to cut trees, and make their boates of one 
whole piece of wood, making it hollowe with great and 
wonderfull art, wherein lo or 12 men may be comodiously, 
their oars are shorte and broad at the ende, and they use 
them in the sea without anye daunger, and by maine force 
of armes, with as great spedinesse as they lifte them selves. 
We sawe their houses made in circuler or rounde fourme, 10 
or 12 foote in compasse, made with halfe circles of timber, 
seperate one from another without any order of building, 
covered with mattes of strawe wrought cunningly together, 
which save them from the winde and raine, and if they had 
the order of building and perfect skil of workmaship as 
we have: there were no doubt but yt they would also make 
eftsoones great and stately buildings. For all the sea coastes 
are full of cleare and ghttering stones, and alablaster, and 
therefore it is full of good havens and harbarours for 
ships. They moove the foresaide houses from one place 
to another according to the commoditie of the place and 
season wherein they will make their aboade, and only taking 
of the cover, they have other houses builded incontinent. 
The father and the whole famihe dwell together in one 
house in great number: in some of them we sawe 25 or 
30 persons. They feede as the other doe aforesaide of 
pulse whiche doe growe in that countrey with better order 
of husbandry the in the others. They observe in their 
sowing the course of the Moone and the rising of certaine 
starres, and divers other customs spoken of by antiquitie. 


Moreover, they live by hunting and fishing, they hve long, 
and are seldome sicke, and if they chaunce to fall sicke at 
any time, they heale them selves with fire without any 
phisition, and they say that they die for very age. They 
are very pitiful and charitable towardes their neighbours, 
they make great lamentations in their adversitie iff in their 
miserie, the kinred reckon up all their felicitie, at their 
departure out of life, they use mourning mixt wt singing, 
wc continueth for a log space. This is asmuch as we coulde 
learne of them. This lande is situated in the Paralele of 
Rome, in 41 degrees iff 2 terces: but some what more colde 
by accidentall cause and not of nature, (as I will declare unto 
your highnesse els where) describing at this present the 
situation of the foresaide countrie, which lyeth East and 
West, I say that the mouth of the haven lyeth open to the 
South halfe a league broade, and being entred within it 
betweene the East and the North, it stretcheth twelve 
leagues: where it wareth broder and broder, and maketh a 
gulfe aboute 20 leagues in compasse, wherein are five small 
Islandes very fruitfuU and pleasant, full of hie and broade 
trees, among the which Ilandes, any great Navie may ryde 
safe without any feare or tempest or other daunger. After- 
wardes turning towards the South and in the entring into 
the Haven on both sides there are most pleasant hilles, 
with many rivers of most cleere water falling into the Sea. 
In the middest of this entraunce there is a rock of free 
stone growing by nature apt to builde any Castle or For- 
tresse there, for ye keeping of the haven. The fift of May 
being furnished with all thinges necessarie, we departed from 
ye said Coast Keeping along in the sight thereof. . . ." 

(London 1582 ed. of Hakluyt's Divers Voyages.) 

The Italian, as printed in Ramusio, is as follows: 

"Leuata I'anchora nauigamo verso leuante che cosi la 
terra tornaua, y cosi leghe cinquanta sempre a vista di 


quella discoprimo un'isola in forma triangulare, lontana 

dal continente leghe dieci, di grandezza simile all'isola di 

Rhodi, piena di colli, coperta d'arbori, molto popolata, 

perche si vedeuano continui fuochi per tutto intorno al lito. 

Battezzamola in nome della vostra Serenissima madre non 

sorgendo a quella per la contrarieta del tempo, l^ peruenimo 

ad vn'altra terra distante dall'isola leghe quindici, doue 

trouamo vn belissimo porto, entrati in quello vedemo 

circa. XX.barchette di gente, che con varij gridi ^ marauiglie 

veniuano intorno alia naue, non approssimandosi a piu di 

cinquanta passi, fermauansi guardando I'artificio, la nostro 

effigie y gliha biti: dapoi tutti insieme metteuano vn'altro 

grido, significando rallegrarsi assicuratigli alquanto, imitando 

li lor gesti: tanto s'approssimorono che gettamo loro alcuni 

sonagli ^ specchi ^ molte fantasie, lequali prese con riso 

riguardandole sicuramente entrarono nella naue. Erano 

fra queste genti duoi Re di tanto bella statura ^ forma 

quanto narrar sia possibile, il primo d'anni .40, in circa, 

I'altro giouane d'anni venti, I'habito de quali era di questa 

maniera. II piu vecchio sopra il corpo nudo haueua vna 

pelle di ceruo lauorata artificiosamete alia damaschina con 

varij ricami: la testa nuda con li capelli auolti a drieto con 

varie legature. Al collo vna catena larga, ornata di molte 

pietre di diuersi colori. il giouane era quasi nella medesima 

forma. Questa e la piu bella gente, ^ di piu gentili costumi 

che habbiamo trouata in questa nauigatione, eccedono noi 

di grandezza, sono di color bronzino, alcuni pendono piu in 

bianchezza, altri di color giallo: il viso profilato, ^ capelli 

lunghi y neri, ne quali pongono grandissimo studio in 

adornarh: gliochi neri y pronti: I'aria dolce y soaue, 

imitando molto I'antico, dell' altre parti del corpo non dico 

a Vostra Maesta, tenendo tutte le proportioni che s'appar- 

tengono ad ogni huomo ben composto. Le donne loro sono 

della medesima conformita ^ bellezza, molto gratiose, di 

piaceuole aria ^ grato aspetto, di costumi ^ continentia 


secundo I'uso feminile quanto ad ogni persona di buona 
creanza sapartiene: vanno nude fuor che le parte vergognose, 
lequali cuoprono con vna pelle di ceruo ricamata, come gli 
huomini, vene sono di quelle anchora che alle braccia portano 
pelli di lupi ceruieri molto ricche, adornano il capo con varij 
ornaventi di treccie, composte de medesimi capelli, che pen- 
dono dall'uno iff I'altro lato del petto. Alcune hanno altre 
aconciature come vsano le donne d'Egitto iff di Soria, iff 
queste sono quelle ch'eccedono I'altre di eta: i^ essendo ma- 
ritate all'orecchie tengouo pendenti di varie fantasie, come 
gli orientali costumano cosi gli huomini, come le donne, a 
quali vedemo molte lame di rame lauorate, da quelli tenute 
in pretio piu che I'oro, il quale per il colore nom stimano, 
imperoche fra tutti e da loro tenuto il piu vile, I'azzuro i^ 
il rosso sopra ogni altro esaltano, quello che piu tenessino in 
prezzo delle cose che da noi gli erano donato, erano sonagli, 
cristalhni azzuri, iff altre fantasie da metter all'orecchie 6 
al collo. Non pregiauano drappi di seta, o d'oro, iff manco 
d'altra sorte, ne si curauano hauerne di simili a quelli, de 
metalli come e acciaio iff ferro, (che piu volte mostramo loro 
delle nostre arme) non ne pigliauano admiratione, iJ quele 
riguardando, solo dimandauano I'artificio: delli specchi il 
simile faceuano, che riguardandoli, subito ridendo, ce li 
restituiuano: sono molto liberali, perche donano cio che 
hanno: facemo con loro grande amista. iff vn giorno con la 
naue entramo nel porto, standoper li tempi contrarij vna 
lega al mar surti. veniuano con gran numero di loro bar- 
chette alia naue tutti dipinti iff acconci il viso con varij 
colori: mostrandoci ch'era segno d'allegrezza, portandoci 
delle lor viuande, ci faceuano segno doue nel porto hauessimo 
a sorgere per saluatione della naue, di continuo accom- 
pagnandone. poi che fumo forti posamo quindici giorni, 
prouededoci di molte cose necessarie, la onde ogni giorno 
veniuano genti a veder la naue menando le lor donne, 
dellequali sono molto gelosi: imperoche entrando essi nella 


naue, ^ dimorandoui per lungo spacio, faceuano aspettar le 
loro donne nelle barchette: iff con quanti preghi facemo 
loro, offerendo donarli varie cose, non fu mai possibile che 
volessero lasciarle entrar in naue. Et molte volte venendo 
vno delli duoi Re con la Reina, iff molti gentilhuomini per 
suo piacere a vederci, tutte si fermauano ad vna terra 
distante da noi dugento passi: mandando vna barchetta ad 
auisarci della sua venuta, dicendo volar venire a vedere la 
naue: questo facendo in segno di sicurezza. ^ come da noi 
habbano la risposta, subito venono: iff stati alquanto a 
riguardere, si marauigliauano, sentendo il gridi iff strepiti 
delli marinari. madama la Reina con le sue damigelle in vna 
barchetta molto leggiere resto a riposar ad vna isoletta 
distante da noi vn quarto di lega, in dimorado il Re lunghis- 
simo spatio nella nostra naue, con ragionare per canni iff 
gesti varie fantasie, riguardando, con marauiglia tutti li 
apparati iff fornimenti della naue: dimandando in par- 
ticulate la proprieta di quelli. prendeua ancho piacere di 
vedere li nostri habiti, iff gustare li nostri cibi: dipoi cor- 
tesemete presa licetia da noi, si parti, iff alcuna volta stando 
le nostre geti due e tre giorni ad vna isoletta vicina alia naue 
per varie necessita, come e costume de marinari, torno con 
sette o otto de suoi gentillhuomini per vedere quello che 
faceuamo, iff piu volte ci dimando se voleuamo quiui restate 
per lungo tepo, ofFeredoci de le sue faculta: dipoi tirando il 
Re con I'arco iff correndo faceua con li suoi gentilhuomini 
varij giuochi per darne piacere. fumo piu volte infra terra 
cinque o sei leghe, laquale trouamo tanto amena, quanto 
dir si possa, atta ad ogni sorti di cultura, di frumento, vino, 
lolio: imperoche in quella sono capagne larghe .25. in .30 
eghe, aperte iff senza alcuno impedimento d'alberi: di. 
tanta fertilita, che qual si voglia semeza in quelle produrebbe 
ottimo frutto. Entramo dipoi nelle selue, lequali trouamo 
tanto grandi iff folte, che vi si potrebbe ascondere ogni 
numeroso esercito, gli alberi di quelle sono quercie, cipressi 


iff altri incogniti nell'Europa. trouamo pomi appij, susine iff 
nociuole, iff molte sorte di frutti dalli nostri differeti: vi 
sono animali di gradissimo numero, come cerui, daini, lupi 
ceruieri, iff altre sorte, quali pigliano co lacci iff archi, che sono 
el loro principal! armi. le freccie che vsano sono con grande 
eccellentia lauorate. iff neU'estremita di quelle pongono 
per ferro smeriglio, diaspro, duro marmo, iff altre taglienti 
pietre, dellequali si seruono per ferro in tagliar alberi, iff 
fabricar le loro barchette d'un sol fusto di legno con mirabile 
artificio cocauo, nellequali comodamente vanno dieci iff 
dodici huomini: i lor remi sono corti, iff neU'estremita larghi, 
iff adoperangli in mare senza pericolo alcuno, iff solamente 
con forza di braccia, con tanta velocita, quanto a lor piace. 
Vedemo le loro habitation! in forme circulare, di dieci in 
dodici passi di circuito, fabricate di semicircoli di legno, sepa- 
rate I'una dall'altra senza ordine d'architettura: coperte con 
tele tessute di paglia, sottilmente lauorate, che da vento iff 
pioggia si difendono. iff non e dubbio che se hauessero lordine 
del fabricare iff la perfettione delli artificij come habbiamo 
noi altri, non e dubbio dico che ancho loro no con ducessero 
grandi iff superbi edificij, imperoche tutto il lito maritime 
e pieno di pietre vine trasparenti, iff alabastri, iff per tal causa 
e copioso di porti iff recettacoli di nauilij. mutano le dette 
case d'uno in altro luogo, secodo la comodita del luogo iff 
tempo che in quelle vogliono dimorare, iff leuando solamete 
le tele, hano in vn istate fabricate altre habitation!, di- 
morano in ciascuna padri iff famiglia in grandissimo numero. 
in alcuna vedemo .25. iff .30, anime. II viuer loro e come de 
glialtri, di legumi, che quelle terre producono, con piu ordini 
di coltura de ghaltri. osseruano nelle semenze il corso della 
luna, iff il nascimeto d'alcune stelle iff motli modi detti da 
gli antichi. oltre di cio viuono di cacciagioni iff pesci. 
Viuono lungo tepo, iff rare volte si amalano, iff se pur alle 
volte sono oppress! de qualche infermita, senza medico, col 
fuoco da lor medesimi si sanano. iff la loro morte dicono 


venire da vltima vecchiezza. sono de loro prossimi molto 
pietosi y charitatiui, facedo nelle aduersita loro gran lament! ; 
y nelle miseria, i parenti luno con I'altro ricordano tutte 
le lor felicita. Nel fine de la lor vita vsano il pianto misto 
con canto, & dura per lungo tempo. Questo e quanto di 
loro habbiamo potuto conoscere. Questa terra e situata 
nel parallelo di Roma, in gradi .41. e dua terzi. ma alquanto 
piu fredda, pr accidete, no pr natura, come in altra parte 
narrero a V.S. Maesta, descriuedo al presente il sito di detto 
paese, qual corre de leuate a ponete. dico che la bocca del 
porto guarda verso mezzo di, strezza mezza lega. dipoi 
entrando in quello, infra leuanto^ tramotano, si estende leghe 
docici, doue va allargandosi, iff fa vn golfo di circuito di leghe 
venti incirca, doue sono cinque isolette di molta fertilita Iff 
vaghezza, piene di alti iff spatiosi alberi. fra liquali, ogni 
grossa armata, senza timor di tempesta o altro impedimeto 
di fortuna, puo star sicura. Tornando dipoi verso mezzo di, 
all'entrata del porto dall'uno laltro lato, sono amenissimi 
colli con molte Riui, che dalla eminentia di quelli conducono 
chiarissime acque al mare, nee mezzo di detta bocca si 
troua vno scoglio di viua pietra, dalla natura prodotto, atto 
a fabricarui qual si voglia fortezza per custodia di quello. 
II giorne quinto di Maggio essendo d'ogni nostro bisogno 
prouisti, partimo dal detto porto, continuando il lito, non 
perdendo mai la vista di terra, ^nauigamo leghe .150. . . . " 

(Ramusio, 1556, vol. 3, p. 421) 

Seal used by William Coddington 



THE Dutch captain, Adrian Block or Blox, visited 
Narragansett Bay about 1614. The following account 
of his visit was printed by De Laet in Dutch in 1625: 

" Beyond these lies also an island to which our countrymen 
have given the name of Block's Island, from Captain Adrian 
Block. This island and the Texel above mentioned are 
situated east by north and west by south from one another, 
and the distance is such that you can see both from the 
quarter deck when you are halfway between. 

To the north of these islands and within the main land, is 
situated the river or bay of Nassau, which lies from the 
above named Block's Island north-east by east and south- 
west by west. This bay or river of Nassau is apparently very 
large and wide, and according to the description of Captain 
Block must be full nine ^ miles in width; it has in the midst 
of it a number of islands, which one may pass on either side. 
It extends east-north-east about twenty-four miles, after 
which it is not more than two petard shots wide, and has 
generally seven, eight, nine, five, and four fathoms of water, 
except in a strait in the uppermost part of the bay, at a 
petard shot's distance from an island in that direction, 
where there is but nine feet water. Beyond this strait we 
have again three and a half fathoms of water; the land in this 
vicinity appears very fine, and the inhabitants seem strong 
of limb and of moderate size. They are somewhat shy, 
however, since they are not accustomed to trade with 
strangers, who would otherwise go there in quest of beaver 

^ "twee" in Dutch text. 


and fox skins, i^c, for which they resort to other places in 
that quarter. 

From the westerly passage into this bay of Nassau to the 
most southerly entrance of Anchor bay, the distance is 
twenty-one miles, according to the statement of our skippers, 
and the course is south-east and north-west. Our country- 
men have given two names to this bay, as it has an island 
in the centre and discharges into the sea by two mouths, 
the most easterly of which they call Anchor bay, and the 
most westerly Sloop bay. The south-east shore of this bay 
runs north-east by north and north-north-east. In the 
lower part of the bay dwell the Wapenocks, a nation of 
savages like the rest. Capt. Adrian Block called the people 
who inhabit the west side of this bay Nahicans, and their 
sagamore Nathattozv; another chief was named Cachaquant. 
Towards the north-west side there is a sandy point with a 
small island, bearing east and west, and bending so as to 
form a handsome bay with a sandy bottom. On the right 
of the sandy point there is more than two fathoms water, 
and farther on three and three and a half fathoms, with a 
sharp bottom, where lies an island of a reddish appearance. 
From Sloop bay, or the most westerly passage, it is twenty- 
four miles to the Great Bay, [Long Island Sound,] which 
is situated between the main land and several islands, 
that extend to the mouth of the Great River [Hudson.]" 
(Translation in N.Y.H.S.C. 2, I, 293.) 

The original Dutch as given by De Laet is as follows: 

"Hier buyten af leght mede een Eylandt welck de onse 
den naem gheven van Blocks Eylandt / naer de naem van 
Schipper Adriaen Block: dit Eylandt ende het voornoemt 
Eylandt Texel legghen Eost ten Noorden / ende West ten 
Suyden van malkanderen / ende de distantie is sulcx dat 
ghyse beyde van de Compagnie sien kont als ghy ten halven 
tusschen beyden ziit. By Noorden dese Eylanden ende aen 


t'vaste landt leghte eerst de rievier ofte baye van Nassouwen, 
welck van Blocks Eylandt voornoemt streckt Noord-oost 
ten Oosten ende Suydt-west ten Westen. Tese baye ofte 
rievier van Nassouwen, is seer groot ende wijt om in te 
sien / ende is naer t'segghen van Schipper Adriaen Block 
wel twee mijlen wijt / ende heeft int midden eenige Eylande- 
kens daer men aen beyde ziiden oin mach zeylen / streckt 
O. N. O. in ontrent acht mijlen / dan is achter niet over twee 
geutelingh scheuten wijt / ende daer is meest seven / acht / 
neghen / vijf ende vier vaden waters / uytgesondert int 
achterste daer een droogte is van neghen voet water / op een 
geutelinck scheut na by een Eylandeken welck men daer 
ghemoet; daer over heest men weder dry vaden ende een 
half; het is daer om her seer schoon landt ende seer kloeck 
volck van leden / ende tamelijck groot / dan ziin wat schouw 
door dien sy noch geen handel met vreemde ghewent ziin; 
anders zijn daer mede vellen van Bevers / Vossen / ende 
anders te bekomen / gelijck in de plaetsen daer ontrent: 
Van t'Westelijckste gat van dese baye van Nassouwen, tot 
aen het Suydt-oostelijckste gat van de Ancker baye, zijn 
seven mijlen naer de rekeninge van onse schippers / ende de 
cours Oost ten Suyden ende West ten Noorden: dese baye 
heeft by de onse twee namen door diense een Eylandt int 
midden heest / ende met twee monden in Zee Komt / waer 
van het Oostelijckste gat ghenoemt wort de Ancker baye, 
ende het Westelijckste de Sloep baye: de Suydt-oost-wal 
van dese baye street hem N. O. ten N. ende N. N. O. inden 
bodem van de baye woonen de Wapenocks een natie van 
Wilden als de reste; Schipper Adriaen Block noemt het 
volck welck aen de West-zijde van dese baye woont Nahicans, 
ende haren Sagimos Nathattou; eh een anderen Cachaquant; 
aen de Noortwest zijde legt een sandt punt / ende een 
Eylandeken N. ten W. in dem bocht met een schoone sandt 
baye; op de steert van t'sandt punt is maer twee vadem 
waters / dan daer voor by weder dry ende dry en een half 


vadem steeck-grondt / ende daer legt een rodlich Eylande- 
ken dicht by. Van de Sloep baye ofte het Westelijckste 
gat van desen in-wijck tot aen de groote baye / zijn acht 
mijlen; dese groote baye is gelegen tusschen het vaste lant / 
ende seker gebroken lant oste Eylanden die haer strecken 
tot in de baye welck legt aen de mondt van de groote 
rieviere: . . ." (loannes de Laet's Nieuv^^e Wereldt, 1625, 
p. 85. Book 3, Chapter 8.) 

The earliest appearance of the name Rhode Island as the 
designation of the island of Aquidneck is in a letter of Roger 
Williams to Deputy Governor John Winthrop v^hich is 
dated "New Providence, this 2d of the week," and which 
from its context was evidently written in the spring of 1637. 

It reads: 

"4. They also conceive it easy for the English, that the 
provisions and munition first arrive at Aquednetick, called 
by us Rode-Island, at the Nanhiggontick's mouth, . . ," 
(M. H. S. C. 3, 1, 160.) 

In 1666 Roger Williams wrote: "Rode Island (in the 
Greeke language) is an He of Roses." (R. I. H. S. P. VIII, 
p. 152.) 

In the preface of the "Short Story" of 1644, Winthrop 
wrote: "Read-Hand, (surnamed by some, the Hand of 
errors)." (Prince Col. 21, p. 93.) 

In 1646 Henry Walton styled himself as of Portsmouth 
on the Isle of Rodes. (Aspinwall, 21.) 

Seal used by Benedict Arnold 




JOHN CLARK, writing in 1652, thus relates how the 
Antinomians came to choose the island of Aquidneck 
as the place for their abode. 

*'In the Colony o{ Providence Plantations in point of an- 
tiquity the Town of Providence is chief, but in point of pre- 
cedency Rode-Island excels. This Hand lieth in the Narra- 
ganset Bay^ being 14 or 15 miles long, and in breadth between 
4 and 5 miles at the broadest; It began to be planted by 
the English in the beginning of the year 39, and by the hand 
of providence. In the year 37 I left my native land, and 
in the ninth moneth of the same, I (through mercy) arived 
at Boston, I was no sooner on shore, but there appeared to 
me differences among them touching the Covenants, and in 
point of evidencing a mans good estate, some prest hard 
for the Covenant of works, and for sanctification to be the 
first and chief evidence, others prest as hard for the Cove- 
nant of grace that was established upon better premises, and 
for the evidence of the Spirit, as that which is more certain, 
constant, and satisfactory witness. I thought it not strange 
to see men differ about matters of Heaven, for I expect no 
less upon Earth: But to see that they were not able so to 
bear each with other in their different understandings and 
consciences, as in those utmost parts of the World to live 
peaceable together, whereupon I moved the latter, for as 
much as the land was before us and wide enough, with the 


prefer o{ Abraham to Lot, and for peace sake, to turn aside to 
the right hand, or to the left: The motion was readily ac- 
cepted, and I was requested wth some others to seek out 
a place, which accordingly I was ready to do; and thereupon 
by reason of the suffocating heat of the Summer before, I 
went to the North to be somewhat cooler, but the Winter 
following proved so cold, that we were forced in the Spring 
to make towards the South; so having sought the Lord 
for diredlion, we all agreed that while our vessel was passing 
about a large and dangerous Cape, we would cross over by 
land, having Long Hand and Delaware-Bay in our eie for 
the place of our residence; so to a town called Providence we 
came, which was begun by one M. Roger Williams (who 
for matter of conscience had not long before been exiled from 
the former jurisdidion) by whom we were courteously 
and lovingly received, and with whom we advised about 
our design; he readily presented two places before us in the 
same Naragansets Bay, the one upon the main called Sow- 
zvames, the other called then Acquediieck, now Rode-Iland; 
we enquired whether they would fall in any other Patent, for 
our resolution was to go out of them all; he told us (to be 
brief) that the way to know that, was to have recourse 
unto Plymouth; so our Vessell as yet not being come about, 
and we thus blockt up, the company determined to send to 
Plymouth, and pitcht upon two others together with my 
self, requesting also M. Williams to go to Plymouth to know 
how the case stood; so we did; and the Magistrates thereof 
very lovingly gave us a meeting; I then informed them of 
the cause of our coming unto them, and desired them in a 
word of truth and faithfulness to inform us whether Sozu- 
wames were within their Patent, for we were now on the 
wing, and were resolved through the help of Christ, to get 
cleer of all, and be of our selves, and provided our way were 
cleer before us, it were all one for us to go further off, as to 
remain neer at hand; their answer was, that Sow-zvames 


was the garden of their Patent, and the flour in the garden, 
then I told them we could not desire it; but requested 
further in the hke word of truth and faithfulness to be 
informed, whether they laid claim to the Hands in the 
Naraganset Bay, and that in particular called Acquedneck? 
they all with a cheerfull countenare made us this answer, it 
was in their thoughts to have advised us thereto, and if the 
provident hand of God should pitch us thereon they should 
look upon us as free, and as loving neighbours and friends 
should be assistant unto us upon the main, &c. So we 
humbly thanked them, and returned with that answer: So 
it pleased the Lord, by moving the hearts of the natives, 
even the chiefest thereof, to pitch us thereon, and by other 
occurrences of providence, which are too large here to 
relate: So that having bought them off^ to their full satis- 
faction, we have possessed the place ever since; and not- 
withstanding the different understandings and consciences 
amongst us, without interruption we agree to maintain 
civil Justice and judgment, neither are there such outrages 
committed mongst us as in other parts of the Country are 
frequently seen." (Ill News from New-England, reprinted 
in M. H. S. C. 4, II, 23.) 

In regard to this, under the date of March 22, 1637, Win- 
throp, after giving an account of Mrs. Hutchinson, wrote 
in his Journal: "At this time the good providence of God 
so disposed, divers of the congregation (being the chief men 
of the party, her husband being one) were gone to Naragan- 
sett to seek out a new place for plantation, and taking a liking 
of one in Phmouth patent, they went thither to have it 
granted them; but the magistrates there, knowing their 
spirit, gave them a denial, but consented they might buy 
of the Indians an island in the Naragansett Bay." (Win- 
throp, I, 311) The discrepancy between the statements of 
Clark and of Winthrop was noted by Savage who made the 
following comment in his edition of Winthrop's Journal: 


*' The denial wa.s matter of inference, for the adventurers were 
resolved to go free of Plimouth as well as Massachusetts; 
and the consent was the advice of equals, not the didlate of 
superiors." (Winthrop, i, 311) 

However, before the "chief men of the party" started 
upon this exploring expedition, a compa(ft was drawn up 
and signed, presumably at Boston, on 7 March, 1637/8. 

"The 7th day of the first month 1638. 

We whose names are underwritten do here solemnly in 
the presence of Jehovah incorporat our selves into a Bodie 
Politick y as he shall helpe will submit our persons lives and 
estates unto our Lord Jesus Christ, the King of Kingj y 
Lord of Lords and to all those perfecft iff most absolute 
lawes of his given us in his holy word of truth, to be guided 
y judged thereby. 

Willmj Coddington Exod. 24. 3, 4, 

John Clarke 2. Chron: 11: 3. 

Willm Hutchinson. J, 2. Kings: 11. 17. 

John Coggeshall 

William Aspinwall 

Samuell Wilbore 

John Porter 

John Sanford 

Edward Hutchinson Junr. Es. 

Thomas Savage 

William Dyre 

William Freeborne 

Phillip Shearman 

John Walker 

Richard Carder 

William Baulston 

Edward Hutchinson. Senr. 

Hennery + Bulle his marke 

Randall Howldon" (L R. i, i.) 


Four signatures, which appear below Randall Holden's 
name, have been partly erased. They were: 

"Thomas Clarke 
John Johnson 
William Hall 
John + Brightman Esq." 

The erasure of these names may have been due to the 
fad: that they did not move to the island with the first 
settlers, or through some error they may have at a later 
date subscribed their names to this paper after their 

Apparently the signers of this compad: planned to establish 
a theocratic state governed by their interpretation of the 
Holy Scriptures, i.e. "his holy word of truth." 

The biblical references, as taken from John Clark's 
Bible, ^ perhaps the one used by those who drew up the 
compadl, are : 

"3 Afterward Moses came and tolde the people all the 
words of the Lord, and all the Lawes: and the people 
answered with one voyce, and sayd, All the things which the 
Lord hath said, will we doe. 

4 And Moses wrote all the wordes of the Lord, and rose 
up early, and set up an Alter under the Mountaine, and 
twelve pillars according to the twelve Tribes of Israel." 
Exod. 24. 

"And Saloman sent to Huram the king of Tyrus, saying, 
As thou hast done to David my father, and diddest send 
him Cedar trees to build him an house to dwell in, so doe to 
me." 2 Chron. H, 3. 

"And Jehoiada made a covenant betweene the Lorde, and 
the King and the people, that they should be the Lordes 
people: likewise betweene the King and the people." 
2 Kings XI, 17. 

1 Now in R. I. H. S. 


At this meeting officers were eleded for the as yet 
unfounded town. 

"The 7th of the first month 1638. We that are Freemen 
Incorporate of this Bodie Pohtick do Eled and Constitute 
Wilham Coddington Esquire a Judge amongst us and so 
Covenant to yeeld all due honour unto him according to 
the lawes of God, and so far as in us lyes to maintaine the 
honour iff privileges of his place wch shall hereafter be 
ratifyed according unto God, the Lord helping us so to do. 

WiUiam Aspinwall Sec'r. 

I, Willm Coddington Esquire being Called ^ chosen by 
the Freemen Incorporat of this bodie Politick to be a Judge 
amongst them; do Covenant to do Justice iff Judgment 
impartially according to the lawes of God and to maintaine 
the Fundamentall Rights iff Priviledges of this bodie Poli- 
tick wch shall hereafter be Ratifyed according unto God, 
the Lord helping us so to do. 

Wm Coddington. 

WilHam Aspinwall is appointed Secretary." (L R. i, 12.) 

That the " compa(5l" of March 7 was signed before the com- 
mittee went in search of a place to settle, is shown by the 
fadl that Clark states that the committee went out in the 
"spring," by which he could scarcely mean before March 7; 
and by the fad: that Winthrop's entry in regard to this 
expedition appears under March 22. If Clark understood 
"spring" to begin on March 21st, as it is reckoned today, 
it would mean that the "committee" left Boston on the 
2ist, went to Providence, then to Plymouth and on to 
Aquidneck and Narragansett, arriving at the latter place 
on the 24th, the day the deed was executed. This would 
be making the journey rather rapidly for that period and it 
is more probable that Clark used the word "spring" broadly, 
meaning about the middle of March. 


It is a curious facH: that these Aquidneck settlers adopted 
a dating system of their own,^ sHghtly at variance with that 
in vogue in New and Old England; where March was 
reckoned as the "first month," and the year was reckoned 
as beginning upon the 25th of the first month. Thus 
March 24, 1637 (March 24, 1637/8) was the last day of 1637, 
and the year 1638 began on March 25, 1638. 

The Aquidneck leaders were educated men and must 
have been perfectly conversant with the current dating 
system, yet they arbitrarily decided to begin their year on 
March i, the "first day of the first month." It was a 
rational change, but it makes some of the old entries rather 
confusing. The days from March i to March 24, which 
by common consent were called 1637 (1637/8), they called 
1638 as would be done in New Style. Thus Sunday, March 
24, 1638 Old Style, Sunday, March 24, 1639 Aquidneck 
Style, and Sunday, April 3, 1639 New Style are adlually 
the same day. 

From January i to February 29 inclusive the Aquidneck 
settlers used the Old Style current calendar; from March i 
to March 24 inclusive they used the Old Style calendar 
but the New Style year date; and for the remainder of the 
year used the Old Style calendar. 

In regard to the banishment of the Antinomians Winthrop 
gives the following interesting testimony: 

"After the usual exercise by Mr. Cotton, on the 26th of 
September, 1640, objed:ions were raised by the members 
who were under discipline, 

Objedion 4. But the Court hath censured us, and drove 
us out of the country; and Mr. Winthrop advised us to 

Answer. Mr. Winthrop affirms his advice was not as 

^ Roger Williams at Providence had also adopted a dating system of his 
own. (See Doc. Hist, of R. I. i, 36.) 

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1 Thatiijhinmhufe »oicsIhtaii^ - - ought to dime befi)t mtn. 

OUKBt to Ixiiiie sell) c men. 





From original in Rhode Island Historical Society Library. 




Governor, nor as the mouth of the Court, but only in 
Christian love, to depart for a time, till they could give the 
Court satisfaction. He answers that he did not advise all 
to depart, for he persuaded Mr. Coddington earnestly to 
stay, and did undertake to make his peace v^ith the Court. 
Neither did the Court banish or drive any away but two, 
Mr. Aspinwall and Mrs. Hutchinson. Some were under no 
offence at all with the Court, as our brother Hazard. " 
(Keayne's Mss. in Ellis', Anne Hutchinson, p. 343) 

Seal used by William Coddington 




THE committee of the Antinomian leaders, consisting 
certainly of William Coddington, William Hutchinson, 
John Clark, Randall Holden, and probably also of John 
Sanford Sr., John Porter, Richard Carder and William 
Dyre, left Boston about the middle of March, possibly as 
late as March 21, 1637/8, and proceeded to Providence. 

Here they were joined by Roger Williams, who accom- 
panied them to Plymouth, where after a consultation with 
those in authority there, the settlers decided to buy Aquid- 

The party then proceeded to that island, where they con- 
ferred with the local sachem, Wonnumetonomey. He 
referred them to his overlords, the chief sachems, Canonicus 
and Miantonomi. Thereupon the party crossed the bay 
to Narraganset, and, through the influence and mediation 
of Roger Williams, purchased the Island of Aquidneck on 
24 March, 1637/8. 

In regard to the purchase of Aquidneck, Roger Williams 
wrote in 1658, as follows: 

"I have acknowledged (and have and shall endeavour 
to maintain) the rights and properties of every inhabitant 
of Rhode-Island in peace; yet since there is so much sound 
and noise of purchase and purchasers, I judge it not unseas- 
onable to declare the rise and bottom of the planting of 


Rhode-Island in the fountain of it: It was not price nor 
money that could have purchased Rhode-Island. Rhode- 
Island was obtained by love; by the love and favour which 
that honorable gentleman Sir Henry Vane and myself had 
with that great sachem Miantinomu, about the league 
which I procured between the Massachusetts English, ^c. 
and the Naragansets in the Pequod war. It is true I 
advised a gratuity to be presented to the sachem and the 
natives, and because Mr. Coddington and the rest of my 
loving countrymen were to inhabit the place, and to be at 
the charge of the gratuities, I drew up a writing in Mr. 
Coddington's name, and in the names of such of my loving 
countrymen as came up with him, and put it into as sure 
a form as I could at that time (amongst the Indians) for 
the benefit and assurance of the present and future inhabit- 
ants of the island. This I mention, that as that truly 
noble Sir Henry Vane hath been so great an instrument in 
the hand of God for procuring of this island from the bar- 
barians, as also for procuring and confirming of the charter, 
so it may by all due thankful acknowledgment be remem- 
bered and recorded of us and ours which reap and enjoy 
the sweet fruits of so great benefits, and such unheard of 
liberties amongst us." (Backus, i. 91.) 

Coddington made the following deposition in regard to 

"William Coddington, Esq., aged aboute seventy-six 
years, testifyeth upon his engagement, that when he was 
one of the magistrates of the Massachusetts Colony he was 
one of the persons that made a peace with Caunonnicus and 
Mianantonomy in the Collony's behalfe of all the Narra- 
gansett Indians, and by order from the authoritie of the 
Massachusetts a little before they made war with the 
Pequod Indians. Not long after this deponent went from 
Boston to find a plantation to settle upon, and came to 


Acquidneck, now called Rhode Island, where was a sachem 
called Wonnumetonomey; and this deponent went to buy 
the Island of him, but his answer was that Caunonnicuss and 
Miantonomy were the chiefe sachems, and he could not sell 
the land; whereupon this deponent, with some others went 
from Acquidneck Island into the Narragansett ^ to the said 
sachems, Caunonicus and Miantonmy, and bought the 
Island of them; they having, as I understand the chief 
command, both of the Narragansett and Aquidneck Island; 
and further saith not. 

Taken upon engagement in Newport, on Rhode Island, 
the 27th day of September, 1677. 

Before P. Sanford, Assistant" 
(R. I.e. R.I. 51.) 
The deed is as follows: 

"The 24th of the ist month called March, in the year (so 
commonly called) 1637. 

Memorandum. That we Caunounicus and Miantunnomu 
the two cheife Sachims of the Nanhiggansets, by vertue of 
our generall Command of this Bay, as allso the perticular 
subjecting of the dead Sachims of Acquednecke ^ Kit- 
ackmuckqut,^ themselves and Lands unto us, have sold 
unto Mr Coddington and his freinds united unto him, the 
great Island of Acquednecke lying from hence Eastward 
in this Bay, as allso the Marsh or grasse upon Quinunigut 
and the rest of the Islands in the Bay (exceptinge Chi- 
bachuwesa ^ formerly sold unto Mr. Winthrop, the now 
Gov"^ of the Massachusetts and Mr. Williams of Providence) 
allso the grasse upon the rivers and Coves about Kitacka- 
muckqut,^ and from these to Paupasquatch,^ for the full 
payment of forty fathom of white beads, to be equally 

' This confirms the location of the conference as Narragansett. See Doc. 
Hist, of R. I. Vol. I, p. 60. 

^ Kittackquamuckquiet (Po. Rec.) ' Doc. Hist, of R. I. i, 47. 

* Kittackquamuckopette (Po. Rec.) * Pumposquatick (Po. Rec.) 




divided betweene us. In witnes whereof we have here 

Item Tht by giveing by Miantunnomu's ten Coates and 
twenty hows to the present Inhabitants, they shall remove 
themselves from off the Island before next winter. 
Witnes our hands. 

the marke of 

In the presence of 

The mark ^ f of Yotuesh.^ 


Roger Williams 

The mark of Miantunnomu ^ 
Randall Howldon 
The mark of y ^ Assotemuit 


The mark of 


Mishammoh ^ 

Caunounicus his son." 

(R. I. C. R. 1,46. Po. R.60) 
"This witnesseth that I, Wunumataunemet the present 
Sachim Inhabitant of the Island have received five fathom 

1 Yotuesh is identical with the Yotaash misread Sotaash of the "Towne 
Evidence." (Doc. Hist, of R. I. i, 62.) 

^ Marks are different on Po. Rec. ^ Neshanmah (Po. Rec.) 


of wampam and doe consent to the contents, witnes my 

The mark of Wanamataunemet. 

In the presence of 
Randall Howldon." 

(R. I. C. R. I, 46.) 

John Cotton, in his "Way Cleared" (1648), p. 88, wrote 
in regard to the purchase of Aquidneck: 

"Fourthly, that which Mr. Baylie further relateth from 
the testimony of Mr. Williams, is as farre from truth, as the 

Mr. Williams (saith Mr. Baylie) told me, that he was 
employed to buy from the Savages, for their late Governour, 
and Mr. Cotton, with their Followers, a portion of Land 
without the English Plantation whither they might retire 
and live according to their mind, exempt from the jurisdidlion 
of all others, whether Civill or Ecclesiastick, Mr. Williams 
was in so great friendship with the late Governour, when 
he told me so much, that I believe he would have been loth 
to have spoken an untruth of him. 

Answ. But this I dare be bold to say, if Mr. Williams 
told Mr. Baylie, so much, that he was imployed by me to 
buy any Land from the Savages, for mee and my followers 
(as he calls them) he spake an untruth of me, whatsoever 
he did of the governour. Yet because I would not speake 
nor thinke worse of Mr. Williams then necessitie constrayn- 
eth, I cannot say but that he might speak as he thought, and 
as he was told; for it may well bee, that such as abused the 
Governours name to him for such an end, might also more 
boldly abuse mine. But I must professe, I neither wrote 
nor spake, nor sent to Mr. Williams for any such errand. 
If ever I had removed, I intended ^uinipyack, and not 
Aquethnick. And I can hardly beleeve the Governour 
would send to him for any such end, who I suppose never 


thought it likely, that himself should tarry longer in the 
Country, then he tarried in the Bay." 

In 1652 William Coddington made the following deposition 
in regard to the purchase of Aquidneck: 

*' Whereas there was an agreement of Eighteene persons to 
make purchass of some place to the southward for a planta- 
tion, whether they Resolved to Remove; for which end some 
of them were sent out to veiw a place for them selves and 
such others as they should take in to the liberty of freemen 
and purchasers with them, and upon their veiw was pur- 
chast Rhode Island, with some small Neighbouring Islands 
and previleges of grass and wood of the Islands in the Bay, 
and Maine adjoyninge . . ." (R. I. L. E. i, 77.) 

Later during 1638 and 1639 quitclaims were obtained 
from various Indian sachems, (see pp. 72 & 73.) 

Apparently upon the trip back from Narragansett, on 
this memorable 24 March, 1637/8, William Dyre asked for 
and obtained as a gift from the other settlers, the island 
since called after him, Dyre Island. 

The affidavits in regard to this gift follow: 

"To whome these shall Concern I Testefy that the Htle 
Island lying in the bay on the North Side of the wading 
River was given mr Dyre by the Purchassers. 
31 October 1650 Jno. Sanford. 

I Attest that the above written Premisses were by my 
fathers Order and Comand by me written my father then 
being very sick and ill witness my hand the 4th of October 
1669 John Sanford. 

I do afirm also that as wee past along by the afore-said 
Island the Purchassers gave the said Island to mr William 

N°. I. 1650 John Porter." 

(R. I. L. E. I, 267., Po. R. 346.) 
"Newport on Rhode Island 10 Novemb 1664 (ut vulg) 

This is to Testefy that I Roger Williams being acquainted 


(by the good Providence of God) with the first Conception 
Birth and growth of Rhode Island (ahas Aquednick) doe 
Asert and affirme as in the holy Presence of God, that by the 
Consent of the first Purchassers of Rhode Island (Dead and 
liveing) the litle Island Comonly Called Dyres Island was 
from the first and allways (sometimes in Meriment) but 
always in Earnest granted to be not only in Name but also 
in truth and reality the Proper Right and Inheritance of 
mr William Dyre of Newport On Rhode Island. 

Roger Williams Assista:" 
(R. I. L. E. I, 267., Po. R. 376.) 

"Captn Randall Houldon of Warwick in the Province of 
Rhode Island iff Providence Plantation aged 57 years or 
thereabouts being Ingaged according to law Testefieth as 
followith That the Purchassers gave that litle Island Called 
Dyres Island to mr William Dyre senr that was then one 
of us and further saith not. Taken the 24th day of June 

"I Doe affirm that wee the Purchassers of Rhode Island 
(my selfe being the chief) William Dyre desireing a spot of 
land of us as we passed by it, after we had Purchassed the 
said Island, did grant him Our Right in the said Island and 
named it Dyres Island. 
Witness my hand. October i8th 1669 

William Coddington." 

"I Richard Carder being a Purchassere doe own the 
above said writeinge: November: 7th 1669 by me Richard 

"William Cooley aged 66 years or thereabouts being 
Ingaged Testefieth that in the first year of the setling of 
this Plantation of Newport he being Master of a boat and 
Jeffery Champlin and Richard Series being of his company, 
and stoping at the Island Called Dyres Island mr William 
Dyre in Presence of them took posession of the said Dyres 




Island and further saith not Taken before me this 6th of 
December 1669. 

John Green Assistant" 
(R. I. L. E. I, 267., Po. R. 346.) 

Seal of Roger Williams 



IN regard to the settlement of Aquidneck, Winthrop wrote 
under the date of March 22, 1637/8. 

"After two or three days, the governour sent a warrant to 
Mrs. Hutchinson to depart this jurisdiction before the last 
of this month, according to the order of court, and for that 
end set her at liberty from her former constraint, so as she 
was not to go forth of her own house till her departure; and 
upon the 28th she went by water to her farm at the Mount, 
where she was to take water, with Mr. Wheelwright's wife 
and family, to go to Pascataquack; but she changed her 
mind, and went by land to Providence, and so to the island 
in the Narragansett Bay, which her husband and the rest 
of that sedl had purchased of the Indians, and prepared 
with all speed to remove unto. For the court had ordered, 
that, except they were gone with their families by such a 
time, they should be summoned to the general court, etc." 
(Winthrop, 311) 

On March 12, 1637/8, the General Court of Massachusetts 
Bay had enad:ed the following resolution : 

"About Mrs Hutchinson. It is ordered, that she shalbee 
gone by the last of this month; ^ if shee bee not gone 
before, shee is to bee sent away by the counsell, wthout 
delay, by the first oportunity; iff for the charges of keeping 
Mrs Hutchinson, order is to bee given by the counsell (if 
it bee not satisfied) to levy it by distres of her husbands 
goods." (M. C. R. I, 219) 


At the same Court, March 12, 1637/8, a number of men 
were summoned to appear at the May Court if they had not 
removed from the colony by that time. Of those so sum- 
moned, the following removed to Newport; viz.: "Mr 
Willi: Coddington, Mr. John Coggeshall, Goo: William 
Baulston, Edward Hutchinson, Samuell Wilbore, John 
Porter, Henry Bull, Philip Shearman, Willi Freeborne, 
Richard Carder, and Nicholas Easton." (M. C. R. i, 218: 
Cf. M. H. S.C. 4-7-1 10.) 

Under the date of April 26, 1638, Winthrop wrote: "26.] 
Mr. Coddington (who had been an assistant from the first 
coming over of the government, being, with his wife, taken 
with the famihstical opinion) removed to Aquiday Island 
in the Narragansett Bay." (I. 318) 

It would appear from Winthrop that Mrs. Hutchinson 
and her family were the first to settle on Aquidneck, and that 
they removed there in the latter part of March, 1638. The 
Coddingtons joined them there the latter part of April and 
most of the other signers of the compadl arrived with their 
families before May 2, 1638, the date of the aforesaid meet- 
ing of the General Court. 

Thomas Savage, although son-in-law of Mrs. Hutchinson, 
seems to have remained in Boston, where he had a child 
baptized in August. There is no record of his ever residing 
at Aquidneck. 

Aspinwall, Edward Hutchinson, Carder and Bull did not 
attend the town meeting held on Aquidneck May 13, 1638, 
but with the exception of Aspinwall, they were mentioned 
in the records of the meeting of May 20, 1638. Aspinwall 
may have removed to the island with the majority of the 
settlers, and then not attended the town meetings because 
of his disagreement with the leaders, for in January, 1638/9, 
he is charged with "defaults," in February suspedled "for 
sedition," and in April, 1639, his property was attached for 


The record of the first town meeting held on Rhode 
Island 13 May, 1638, is as follows: 

"It is agreed that William Dyre [shall be Clarke of] this 

3d Month 13 day: i638: 

At a Generall Meeting upon publicke Notice, there being 

Mr. Coddington Judge: Sam Willbore 

Will Hutchinson: John Samfford 

John Coggeshall Wm Freeborne 

Edward Hutchinson: Philip Sherman 

WilHam Baulston: John Walker 

John Clarke Randall Houlden 
John Porter 

It is ordered, that none shall be Received as Inhabitants 
or Freemen, to build or plant upon the Hand but [such] as 
shall bee Received in by the Consent of the bodye, and doe 
submitt to the Governement that is or shall be established, 
according to the word of God. 

:2: It is also ordered that the Towne shall be builded at 
the springe, and Mr. William Hutchinson is prmitted to 
have sixe Lots for himselfe i^ his Children, Layd out At the 
Great Cove. EXP: 

:3 : It is ordered also that a Generall Fence be made from 
Baye to Baye, Above the head of the springe wth five rayles, 
the Charge of this to be borne proportionally to every mans 
alottment EXP: 

'.4.: It is ordered that every one of this body shall have for 
his present use one acre of medow for a Beast, one acree for 
: 5 : sheep, ^ one acree ^ a halfe for a horse, to be layd out at 
the discretion of Mr. Sanford ^ Mr. Willbore ^ John Porter, 
wth what convenient speed may be upon notice given of 
every mans severall Cattle.^ EXP: 

^ From a marginal note it appears that orders 3 and 4 were later " Repeald.' 


:5: It is further ordered that every Inhabitant of this 
Island shall be alwayes prvided of one muskett, one pound 
of powder, twenty Bulletts i^ two fademe of match, wth 
Sword and rest ^ Bandeliers, all Completely furnished: 

:6: It is ordered Also that the meeting house shall be set 
one the necke of Land that goes over to the maine of the 
Island wher Mr. John Coggeshall ^ Mr John Samfford shall 
lay it out." (I. R. 3) 

The record of this meeting is in the handwriting of William 
Dyre, the Clerk. The office of Clerk seems to have super- 
seded that of Secretary, which was held by William Aspin- 
wall at the meeting in Boston, which is recorded in his 

The explanation of the change may be due to the dispute, 
previously mentioned, between Aspinwall and the other 
leaders, in which case it may have been easier for them to 
create a new office than to suspend Aspinwall. 

The "Springe" at which the Town was built was near the 
Great Cove at the northeast end of the island. John Cal- 
lender, in his "Historical Discourse," deUvered 24 March, 1738 
said: "The Settlement began immediately, at the Eastward or 
Northward End of the Island^ (then called Pocasset,) round 
the Cove, and the Tozvn was laid out at the Spring.'^ 

(P- 33) ^^ 

The "General Fence," later known as the "Common 
Fence," which ran from bay to bay, has given its name to 
the peninsula north of it, which is still called "Common 
Fence Point." 

At this first town meeting, two committees were ap- 
pointed, one to lay out land, and the other to choose a site 
for the meeting-house. 

Although the "compacft" may be considered as estab- 
lishing religious liberty for Christians, which those who 
drafted it doubtless considered as "complete religious 
liberty"; yet it should be noted that the church was a state 


church, and that the town government appointed a com- 
mittee in regard to the meeting-house. 

The neck of land designated for the meeting-house is 
probably the one now occupied by the village of Island 

The elaborate ena(5lment with regard to firearms looks 
as if the settlers did not feel that they were on very friendly 
terms with the Indians. 

The enadlments concerning firearms and the meeting- 
house were doubtless in strong contrast with the legislation 
at Providence, early records of which unfortunately have 
not been preserved in full. 

A week later the second town meeting was held at Pocasset. 
Thereafter these meetings were held at irregular intervals. 

"At a Generall Meeting upon Publicke notice 20th of the 
3d month: 


Mr Coddington Judge 
Mr Will Hutchinson: 
Mr John Coggeshall 
Mr Will Balston 
Mr John Samford 
Mr. Sam Willbore 
John Porter 
Willi Freeborne: 
John Walker: 
Philip Sherman 
Wm. Dyre, CI. 

:7: It is ordered that the neck of Land by Mr. Esson's 
house shall be sufficiently fenced in wth five Rayles at 
that place where John Samford Will Balston iff Philip 
Sherman shall appoint, for to lye as a Comon feild belong- 
ing to the towne: iff the fence to be begun on the 2d day 


:8: It is ordered l^ agreed upon that Every mans alottmt 
recorded in this Book shall be his Sufficient evidence for him 
y his, rightly to possess l^ enjoy. 

:9: It is ordered that Mr Coggeshall Mr Samffbrd ^ John 
Porter shall lay outt the Allottmts for the towne ^ accord- 
ing to orders, thess allottmts following are Layd out by Mr 
Coggeshall and Mr Samfford. 

Impr. To Mr Will Coddington a house lott of six acres, 
8 [poles] in breadth ^ 120 poll in Length lying North ^ 
South, the [breajdth East ^ West along by the sid of the 
great pond. 

Itt. Mr. Clarke 6 acres lying upon the west side of the 
same, being of the same bredth ^ length. 

[Itt To Mr] Wm Dyre At the Cove by the marsh 
6 Acres being [10] pole in bredth l^ 50 in Length y 
bounded round by the marsh. 

Itt To Mr. Wm. Hutchinson 6 Acres being 10 Rode in 
bredth bounded by the great cove on the East l^ 14 at the 
West y so it runs 80 pole in Length westward. 

Itt. To Mr. Samuel Hutchinson 6 acres adjoining lying 
as the former on the North Side. 

Itt. To Mr. Easton 6 acres is granted to lye next the 
Cove on the North side of the great Cove. 

Itt. To Edward Hutchinson, Senior, Idem. 

Itt. To Edward Hutchinson, Junior, Idem. 

Itt. To John Samfford, Idem, as it is marked out by 
Trees. West side of the Spring. 

Itt. To Mr John Coggeshall 6 acrees, 20 pole in bredth 
on the East iS 96 feet long. 

Itt. To Randall Houlden 5 acres Large 9 pole in bredth, 
96 long. 

Itt. to Richard Burden 5 acres Large, 9 pole in bredth, 
96 long. 

Itt. To Will. Balston 6 acres on the East side of the 


Spring 10 pole in bredth on the West Ifj So in Length, y 
14 at the East. 

:io: It is also ordered l^ agreed upon, by Generall Consent 
that Will. Balston shall Ere(5l ^ sett up a howse of Enter- 
tainmt for Strangers, as also to Brew beare ^ to sell wines ^ 
Strong waters, ^ such necessary provisions as may be usefuU 
in any kind. 

:ii: It is ordered, that Mr. Coggeshall ^ Mr SamfFord is 
appointed to lay out :io: acres of plowing ground for Mr 
Coddingtin, i^ :6: acres to Mr Wm Hutchinson for the 
same use. (I. R. pp. 4 ^^ 5) 

From these records it appears that Samuel Hutchinson, 
Nicholas Easton, and Richard Burden had by this time 
joined the young colony, although Peter Easton wrote in 
1669 that: "They [the Eastons] went into Rhode Island in 
June . . . 1638" and "builded at Portsmouth at the cove 
and planted there this year, 1638, 15th of the 5th month." 
(Notes of Peter Easton, printed in Newport Mercury, 2 Jan. 

William Baulston established the first tavern within the 
present boundaries of Rhode Island and enadlment 10 is the 
grant of the first hotel license, and the first license to make 
and sell liquor. 

On June i an earthquake occurred which was felt at 
Aquidneck.^ In regard to this Winthrop wrote: 

"This is further to be observed in the delusions which this 
people were taken with: Mrs. Hutchinson and some of her 
adherents happened to be at prayer when the earthquake 
was at Aquiday; etc., and the house being shaken thereby, 
they were persuaded, (and boasted of it,) that the Holy Ghost 
did shake it in coming down upon them, as he did upon the 
apostles." (1,352) 

"At a Generall Meeting upon Publick notice the 27th of 
the 4th month. i638. 

1 See Doc. Hist, of R. I. i, 75. 



Mr Wm Coddington Judge: Mr Willbore 

Mr Wm Hutchinson John Porter 

Mr. John Clarke Randall Howlden 

Mr Coggeshall Wm Freeborne 

Mr Balston John Walker 

Mr Edw'd Hutchinson Sen Richard Carder 

Edw'd Hutchinson Jun Henry Bull 

Mr. Samford Wm Dyre, CI. 

It is ordered by Generall Consent, that Wm Balston, y 
Edward Hutchinson, are chosen Serjeants of the Traine 
Band y Samuell W^illbore Clarke thereof, ^ Randall Howlden 
y Henry Bull are chosen Corporalls. 

Whereas ther be divers as well Inhabitants as Freemen, 
who have taken up Certaine proportions of Land In the 
Island of Aquethnek, It is ordered that they shall pay in 
lieu thereof two shillings for every acree that they doe enjoy 
and so the like summ to be payed of all such who shall 
herafter be admitted as Inhabitants into the Island: And 
it is further ordered that thess monies shall be paid the one 
halfe presently, y the other halfe att three monthes End; 
and it is further ordered that those who shall pay in their 
monies shall bring in a note unto the Company under the 
Treasurer's hande, his name iff Lands then to be Registred 
in the Records according to a former order, fol. :i: numb :8: 

: 14: Mr Wm Hutchinson y Mr John Coggeshall is chosen 
Treasurers for the Company for one whole year next ensuing, 
or untill such time as new be chosen. 

:i5: It is ordered that all such Sumes of mony as the 
Treasurers shall receive they are to dispose of iff employ, by 
the Companies order, iff no otherwise, and to be accountable 
for the same to the Company when they shall require it 
of them. 

:i6: It is ordered, that Mr Hutchinson iff Mr. Coggeshall 


Treasurers of the Company shall receive y discharge such 
sumes of mony as the Company hath comming unto them, 
and is indebted by them; the sight of this order given under 
the prties hands that receives them shall be their discharge. 

wj: It is ordered that Mr. Samfford wth foure others 
shall presently repair the highwayes betweene Titicutt ^ 
Aquethneck, and to be paid out of the Treasury. 

: 18 : It is ordered that if any of the Freemen of this Body 
shall not repair to the Publick meetings to treate upon the 
Publick affaires of the Body upon Publick warning (whether 
by beate of the Drumm (or otherwise) if they fayle one 
quarter of an howre after the second sound they shall for- 
feitt twelve pence, or if they depart wthout leave, they are to 
forfeitt the same summ of twelve pence." (I. R. pp. 4^5) 

On July 6, 1638, Ousamequin confirmed the settler's rights 
to the grass on the mainland. 

''Memorandm. That I Ousamequin freely Consent that 
Mr. William Coddington and his freinds united unto him 
shall make use of any grasse or trees on the maine land on 
Pawakasick side, and doe promise loveinge and just Carriage 
of my selfe and all my men to the said Mr. Coddington and 
English his freinds united to him, haveing received of Mr. 
Coddington five fathom of wampam as gratuity from him- 
selfe and the rest. 

Dated the 6th of the fifth month, 1638. 

The marke of "f" Ousamequin 


Roger Williams 

Randall Howldon" (R. I. C. R. i, 46.) 

This memorandum shows that Roger Williams again 
served the Aquidneck settlers as interpreter and mediator 
with the Indians. 


Under the date of August 3, 1638, Winthrop mentions a 
storm which caused very high tides in Narragansett Bay.^ 

Under the same date Winthrop wrote: 

"Many of Boston and others, who were of Mrs. Hutchin- 
son's judgment and party, removed to the Isle of Aquiday; 
and others, who were of the rigid separation, and savored ana- 
baptism, removed to Providence, so as those parts began to 
be well peopled." (1,268) 

Under the date of 13 August, 1638, Winthrop wrote: 

"Those who were gone with Mrs. Hutchinson to Aquiday 
fell into new errors daily. One Nicholas Easton, a tanner, 
taught that gifts and graces were that antichrist mentioned 
Thess., and that which withheld, etc., was the preaching of 
the law; and that every of the eled: had the Holy Ghost and 
also the devil indwelling. Another one Heme, taught that 
women had no souls, and that Adam was not created in true 
holiness, etc., for then he could not have lost it." (338) 

It is not clear who the Heme is, whom Winthrop mentions. 

Under the date of August 15 Winthrop records: 

"The wind at N. E., there was so great a tempest of wind 
and snow all the night and the next day, as had not been 
since our time. . . . Two vessels bound for Quinipiack were 
cast away at Aquiday, but the people saved." (345) 

"At a Generall Meeting of the 20th of the 6th mo. 1638, 
upon Publick notice. 


Mr Coddington, Judge Philip : Sherman 

Mr Wm Hutchinson Rich Carder 

Mr Clarke Randall Howlden 

Mr Willbore Edw: Hutchinson 

Mr Samfford Will Dyre, CI 
Wm Freeborn 

I Doc. Hist, of R. I. I, 75. 


It is Agreed that a paire off Stockes wth a whipping post 
shall forthwth be made ^ the Charges to be payd out of the 

:20: It is ordered that thoss Allottments wch are to be 
layd out for the towne are to be layed out eight Rodd brood 
up along the spring; iff 6 rodd brod along by the waters 
sides; And the length to be left to the further Consideration 
of the Body. 

: 2 1 : It is agreed this present 20th of the 6th by the Generall 
Consent of the Body present, That Mr. Rich: Dummer; 
Mr Nicholas Esson, Mr Willia Brenton ^ Mr Robert 
Harding are admitted as Freemen of this Society wth 
them fully to enjoy the priviledges belonging to that 
Body." (I. R. p. 5.) 

There is no section numbered 19 in the original records. 

It will be noted that Mr. Easton evidently had been living 
at Pocasset as an inhabitant since before the 20th of May, 
although he was not enfranchised until the 20th of August. 
The other three men may have just arrived in the settle- 
ment. Cf. p. 38. 

"At a Generall Meeting upon Publick Notice this 23d of 

the 6th month rr> i 


Mr Coddington, Judge Mr Ed: Hutchinson 

Mr Dummer Mr Brenton 

Mr Esson Mr Willbore 

Mr Hutchinson John Porter 

Mr. Clarke Wm Freeborne 

Mr Harding Rich Carder 

Mr Samfford Randall Howlden 

WiUia Dyre, Cla. 

22. It is agreed that thirteen lotts on the west side of the 
Spring shall be granted to Mr Richard Dummer ^ his 
friends to witt Mr Stephen Dummer, Mr. Tho Dummer, 
Mr Esson, Mr Jefferyes, Mr. Doutch, Wm Baker, Mr. 


Spencer, Adam Mott, Robert Feild, James Tarr, Mr Hard- 
ing, and thess to Build ther at the Spring at furthest; or 
else their lotts to be disposed of by the Company. 

123: It is ordered that a howse for a prison, Containing 
twelve foot in length y tenn fotte in Bredth ^ ten foote 
Studd, shall forthwth be built of Sufficient strength iff the 
Charges to be payd out of the Treasury and the oversight of 
the work being committed to Mr. William Brenton. 

It is ordered that the Remainder of the Grass, wch is yett 
uncut at hogg Island shall be granted to Mr Brenton to mow 
this yeare for his necessity EXP 

125: It is ordered that Mr Richard Dummer In regard 
of a miller that he undertooke to build, wch was Conceived 
to be usefule to the plantation, he should be accomodated 
answerable to a man of a hundred and fifty pounds estate 

26: It is ordered that Mr. Richard Dummer wth his 
friends, whose names are Recorded in the :22: order shall 
eyther be accomodated wth us in the present plantation 
Equall to ourselves, or in Case there be not sufficient accom- 
odation here; then to accomodate them on some other parte 
upon the Island. 

127: It is ordered according to a former Choyce that 
Randall Houlden shall be Marshall for one whole yeare." 

(I. R. 5) 

From a marginal note it appears that order 25 was later 

"At a Generall Meeting on the 1 5° of the 7°, [1638] 


Mr Coddington, Judge Mr Samford 

Mr Esson Henry Bull 

Mr Hutchinson John Porter 

Mr Coggeshall Randall Holden 

Mr Clarke Will Dyre Cler 


By virtue of a Warrant, George Willmore, George Parker, 
John Lutner, John Arnold, Samuell Smith, Robert Stanton, 
Anthony Robinson, John Vahun, being summoned to appeare 
before the Body for a Riott of drunkenesse by them commit- 
ted on the 13° of the 7° month: It was accordingly agreed 
y ordered in Regard the default was different in some 
Circumstances, That George Willmore ^ George Parker 
shuld pay into the Treasury 5^ a peece, and to sitt till the 
Evening in the Stockes; and that John Lutner shuld pay 
5s y sitt one howre in the Stockes; iff that Samuell Smith, 
Robert Stanton, Anthony Robinson iff John Vahun should 
pay 5s a peece as a fine for their default. 

29 It is further ordered, that Mr. Esson Mr. Coggeshall, 
iff Mr. Willbore shall veiw such damages that are done upon 
the Corne iff other fruits iff accordingly shall give information 
to the Body." (I. R. 6) 

It will be noted that Pocasset had by this time become a 
sizable town and in population had surpassed the neighboring 
settlement of Providence. 

The rapid growth of Pocasset was due chiefly to the 
temporary popularity of Mrs. Hutchinson's religious teach- 

It will also be noted that Will. Balston's beer had begun 
to take effect and that the " Stockes " authorized on August 8 
were in use in less than a month. 

The inhabitants of Pocasset were divided into two classes, 
those enfranchised numbering about 25 heads of families and 
those not enfranchised numbering at least 17 or 18 and 
probably more. 

"At a Generall Meeting upon Publicke notice, the 5th of 
the 9° month 

Mr Coddington, Judge Mr. Samford 

Mr Hutchinson Mr. Freeborn 

Mr Brenton Phihp Sherman 


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Mr Clark Mr Henry Bull 

Mr Balston John Walker 

Mr Willbore Randall Howlden 

Mr Hutchinson Wm Dyre, Cler. 

30: It is ordered that on the 12th of this 9° month ther 
shall be a generall day of trayning for the Exercise of those 
who are able to beare Armes in the Arte of military discipline, 
and all that are of 16 yeares of age ^ upwards to 50 shall be 
warned therunto.^ 

31 It is ordered that Mr. SamfFord i^ Mr. Jefferies shall 
lay out the house lotts for the towne, three Acres to each 
house, to thoss that are not yett provided for, y it was further 
ordered, that those who were upon the first discovery (and 
freemen) shall be provided according to six acres a howse 
lott as near to their howses as Conveniently may be. 

32. It is ordered that Mr Edward Hutchinson shall Bake 
bread for the use of the plantation iff that his Bread for the 
assize shall be ordered by the Body."^ (I. R. 6) 

"At a Generall Meeting upon the Publicke Notice, the 
i6th of the 9°: 


Mr Coddington, Judge Hutchinson, 

Mr Esson John Porter 

Mr. Hutchinson John SamfFord 

Mr Clarke Will Freeborn 

Mr Brenton John Walker 

Mr Coggeshall Henry Bull 

Mr Balston Richard Carder 

Mr Willbore Randall Holden 
Wm Dyre, Cler 

It is ordered, that John Porter and John SamfFord shall 
treate wth Mr Nicholas Esson, Iff shall fully agree wth him, 

^ Universal military training. 

^ Regulation of the size of bread, i.e. food prices. 


in allowing of him sufficient accommodations for four Cowes 
ifj planting ground as they shall think meett all wch is for 
the setting up of a Water Millur wch the sd Mr Esson hath 
undertaken to build for the necessary use If^ good of the 
plantation, and further it is granted to the said Mr. Esson 
that he shall have liberty to fall i^ carry away any such 
timber as shall be of necessary use for the present building 
of the mill. 

Forasmuch as John Lutner Carpenter is departed the 
Island wthout leave or licence, ^ is found to be indebted to 
sundry prsons; It is therfore ordered that Mr. William 
Brenton ^ Mr. John Coggeshall shall seize upon his howse 
ifj what he hath in the same Ifj shall satisfie themselves & 
others of his Creditors, so farr as it shall goe being by them 
lawfully praysed. 

It is ordered that Mr Coggeshall ^ Sargent Hutchinson iff 
Mr Willbore iff Mr. Dyre, is appoynted for the venison trade 
wth the Indyans, ^ that they are not to give them above 
three halfe pence a pound in way of trade, iff that those 
truck masters doe sell forth the sd venison for two pence a 
pound; a farthing for each pound being allowed to the 
Treasury, y the Rest be unto themselves for their attendance 
thereon." (I. R. 6.) 

Seal of Richard Smith 



THE management of the aflPairs of Pocasset by a Judge 
and general town meeting after an experiment of eight 
months proved unsatisfactory. Whether the transacflion 
of business at a general town meeting was too cumbersome, 
or whether the administration of the Judge was too auto- 
cratic, we do not know, although later events point to the 
latter probability. 

The religious differences between Coddington and Mrs. 
Hutchinson would naturally cause her "party," a group 
which at first was probably bound only by religious ties, to 
chafe under the civil administration of a religious opponent. 

The next step would naturally be for her "party" to seek 
to increase its political power in order to safeguard its 
religious views. The arrival of Gorton, if it did not in fad: 
foster this change, certainly must have aided in its develop- 
ment, even if the actual change had already occurred. 
Gorton's extremely hberal civil ideas, and his religious 
proselyting would inevitably have thrown him into any 
party opposed to Coddington's strong theocratic govern- 
ment. It is not surprising that Gorton and Mrs. Hutchin- 
son, although teaching antagonistic creeds, should have 
temporarily united to oust from civil power one of a different 

Coddington, apparently fearing the power of the majority, 
ingeniously acceded to their demands and acquiesced in the 
creation of a board of three elders. The eledlion of Cod- 


dington's followers on January 2, 1638/9, to all the positions, 
on this board only serves to show the extraordinary political 
ability and foresight of the Judge. 

On 4 December, 1638, the Plymouth Court enabled that: 
"Samuell Gorton, of Plymouth, yeom for his misdemeanrs in 
open Court towards the elders, the Bench, Iff stirring up the 
people to mutynie in the face of the Court is fyned xxl: to 
be prsently levyed and to put in sureties for his good be- 
havior during the tyme he shall remayne at Plymouth, 
wch is limitted by the Court to xiiij dayes, and if he stay 
above, then to abide the further censure of the Court." 
(P. C. R. I, 105.) 

Hence it would appear that Gorton with his family, and 
perhaps some of his followers, left Plymouth before Decem- 
ber 1 8th and hence reached Pocasset during that month, 
probably about the middle of December. 

"At a Generall meeting of the Body o[n] the 2d of the 
nth month, i638 

Mr Coddington Judge John Porter 

Mr Esson Randall Holden 

Mr John Clarke Wm Freeborn 

Mr Coggeshall Adam Mott 

Mr Brenton John Walker 

Mr Jeremy Clarke Henry Bull 

Mr Willbore Rich Carder 

Philip Sherman Wm Dyre Clarke 

By the Consent of the Body 
It is agreed 

That such who shall bee chosen to the Place of Eldership 
they are to assist the Judge in the Execution of Justice and 
Judgmt for the regulating tff ordering of all offences ^ 
offenders: And for the drawing up iff determining of all such 
Rules y Laws as shall be according to God; wch may Con- 


duce to the Good & wellfare of the Comonweale. And to 
them is Comitted By the Body the whole care and charge of 
all the Affaires thereof. And that the Judge together wth 
the Elders shall Rule and Governe according to the Generall 
rule of the word of God, when they have no Particular rule 
from God's word by the Body proscribed as a diredion unto 
them in the case: And further it is Agreed ^ Consented unto. 
That the Judge wth the Elders shall be Accountable unto 
the Body once Every Quarter of the year (when as the Body 
shall be Assembled) of all such Cases, Adions ^ Rules wch 
have passed throw their hands; By them, to be scanned ^ 
weighed by the word of christ. And if by the Body or any of 
them the Lord shall be pleased to dispence Light to the 
Contrary of whatt by the Judge ^ Elders hath been deter- 
mined formerly; that then & there it shall be repealed as 
the A(5l of the Body. And if it be otherwise, that then it 
shall stand (till further light) Concerning it for the present, 
to be according to God, ^ the tender Care of Indulgent 

Given: this 2d of iith 1638 

WillmDyre, CI: 

The votes being unseal'd upon this Conclusion iff the 
Providence casting it upon Mr Esson, Mr Coggeshall ^ 
Mr Brenton, it was further ratified as followeth, viz 

By the Eledion of the Body Mr Nicholas Esson Mr John 
Coggeshall and Mr WiUiam Brenton are chosen and Called 
on unto the place of Eldership to assist the Judge in the 
Execution of Justice ^ Judgmt for the Regulating and 
ordering of all offences ^ offenders, ^ for the drawing up ^ 
determining of all such Rules iff Lawes as shall be according 
to God, wh may Conduce to the good iff wellfare of the Com- 
monweale, iffc, as aforesayd. 

It is ordered that Mr John Clarke wth Mr Jefferies iff 
John Porter iff Richard Burden shall survey all the Lands 


near abouts ^ shall bring in a mapp or Plott of all the s'd 
lands, iff so to make Report to the Judge Iff Elders, whereby 
they may Receive Information ^ direcflion for the distribu- 
tions to each man his Propriety. 

It is Ordered that Mr JefFeries iff Will Dyre shall lay 
out iff measure the home Allotments. 

These prticular casses vis. To deale wth Wm Aspinwall 
Concerning his defaults as also Concerning Invasions for- 
reine and domestick as also the determination of military 
discipline, Iff the disposing of the lands as well hous lotts iff 
impropriations, is committed to the Judge iff Elders to 
Agitate iff dispose of." (p. 7) 

"The 24° of the ii°: 1638: 

The body being assembled wth the Judge iff Elders it was 
agreed (as necessary for the Commonwealth) that A Con- 
stable iff a Sargeant shuld be chosen by the Body to execute 
the Lawes iff Penalties thereof, viz: The Constable is to see 
that the Peace be kept, iff that ther be no unlawfuU meetings, 
or any thing that may tend to Civill disturbance pracflised iff 
furthermore he is to informe in Generall of all manifest 
Breaches of the Law of God that tend to Civill disturbance 
iff that he hath Authority to Command prtie or prties, 
one or more (as need shall require) to assist him in the dis- 
charge of his office. 

The Sergeant he is to attend all meetings of the Judge iff 
Elders iff to execute the Sentences of the Courte And he is 
to serve all warrants diredled unto him And to informe of all 
Breaches of the Lawes of God that tend to Civill disturb- 
ances; And further he is to keep the prison, iJ all such who 
shall be comitted unto his Custody wth all safety iff diligence, 
And unto him is granted authority to Command prtie or 
prties, one or more as need shall be to assist him in the 
discharge of their several offices 

Samuel Willbore by the Consent of the Body is chosen 
Constable iff is invested wth the Authority aforesayd iff 


what else shall be found meet to Concurr wth that office of 

Henry Bull is by Consent of the Body Chosen Sergeant ^ 
invested wth the Authority aforesayd, ^ whatt else shall be 
found meet to Concurr wth that office of Sergeantship. 

It is ordered, that the prison formerly Agreed upon shall 
be proceeded wthall ^ finished ^ that Mr Esson shall assist 
Mr Brenton in the worke, ^ then that it be sett near or 
Joyned unto the house of Henry Bull, Sergeant." (p. 8.) 
"By the Judge ^ Elders on the f I2°i638 

Richard Maxon Blacksmith, upon Complaints made 
against him was accordingly detected for his oppression in 
the way of his Trade, who being Convinced thereof promised 
amendment ^ satisfa(n:ion. 

Osamond Doutch, upon Complainte ^ Information agst 
him Concerning damage 'd wrong done by him, promised 
to give satisfaction wn his accusers shall be produced, ^ 
thereupon bond taken of him wth the engagement of his 
shallop to the prformance of the same. 

Thomas Beeder John Marshall Robert Stanton and 
Osamund Doutch are admitted as Inhabitants. 

Mr Aspinwall being a suspected prson for sedition agst 
the State it was thought meet that a stay of the building 
of the bote should be made whereupon [the?] workman was 
forbidden to proceed any further." (p. 8.) 

Winthrop recorded under the date March 16, 1638/9: 

"There was so violent a wind at S. S. E. and S. as the like 
was not since we came into this land. It being in the even- 
ing, and increased till midnight," and later he added, "The 
Indians near Aquiday being pawwawing in the tempest, the 
devil came and fetched away five of them." Under this 
same date Winthrop makes another reference to Aquidneck: 

"At Aquiday, also, Mrs Hutchinson exercised publicly, 
and she and her party (some three or four families) would 
have no magistracy. She sent also an admonition to the 


church of Boston; but the elders would not read it publicly, 
because she was excommunicated. By these examples we 
may see how dangerous it is to slight the censures of the 
church; for it was apparent, that God had given them up 
to strange delusions. Those of Aquiday also had enter- 
tained two men, whom the church of Roxbury had excom- 
municated, and one of them did exercise publicly there. 
For this the church of Boston called in question such of 
them as were yet their members; and Mr. Coddington, 
being present, not freely acknowledging his sin, (though 
he confessed himself in some fault,) was solemnly ad- 

This is further to be observed in the delusions which this 
people were taken with: Mrs. Hutchinson and some of her 
adherents happened to be at prayer when the earthquake 
was at Aquiday, etc., and the house being shaken thereby, 
they were persuaded, (and boasted of it,) that the Holy 
Ghost did shake it in coming down upon them, as he did 
upon the apostles." (p- 352) 

Although there is nothing to show what the sedition was 
of which Mr. Aspinwall was susped:ed and punished on 
February 12, 1638/9, it is extremely likely that it was part 
of the Anti-Coddington "Conspiracy" of Mrs. Hutchinson, 
which is suggested by Winthrop's entry of March 16, 1638/9, 
and which resulted in the overthrow of Coddington in the 
following May. 

"On the 2J°: 12°: 1638: It is ordered that that neck of 
Land lying in the Great Cove Containing about two Acres 
or thereabouts on Corner whereof butting upon Serjeant 
Hutchinsons i^ Lying northeast, tj Southwest, joining to 
the Maine of the Island is granted to Mr Samuell Willbore 
for him ^ his Rightly to possess Iff enjoy ^ is to go one as 
prt of his second division wch is to be layed out hereafter. 

It is ordered that that lott wch was Reserved for Valentine 
Hill is granted to Serjeant Hutchinson as prt of his Second 


division if so be Valentine Hill doth not Come to Inhabit ^ 
build thereon. 

Joseph Clarke Robert Carr iff John Briggs are admitted 

It is ordered that the Swinn that are upon the Hand shall 
be sent away from the plantation six miles up into the 
Island or unto some Yslands adjacente by the loth of the 2° 
1639: or else to be shutt up that so they may be inoffenseve 
totheTowne." (p. 9-) 

"On the 6° of the 2° 1639 Whereas ther was an Order by 
the Body that Mr Esson Mr Coggeshall & Mr Wilbore 
shuld take a veiw of the severall damages done by the Cattle 
of severall beards of Cattle; and accordingly give informa- 
tion wch being done, we the Judge ^ Elders due further 
order that every one who shall Come to make demaund 
therof, shall have Liberty to demaund of every such prson 
whose Cattle hath done the harme according to the Informa- 
tion given in by them; and that if such prsons shall refuse 
to pay, that then both prties shall in time Convenient 
repair to the Court i^ ther in a Legall way according to God 
implead each other, Iff that if any shall Refuse to make 
their prsonal appearance that then warrants shall be granted 
forth for the destraining for the due satisfadlion of the en- 

It is ordered that those parcels of Ground wch was planted 
the Last yeare by severall prsons That they shall have 
Libertie to plant it also this yeare and then all thoss prcels 
of Lands to Returne unto the Towne or to such to whom the 
Land shall be appropriated unto, i^ for any Charge Concern- 
ing it shall be left unto the arbitration of such who shall be 
thereunto appointed. 

It is ordered that All such Hoggs as shall be found wthin 
the Towne after the 10 of the 2° shall pay 2d for each hogg 
y it shall be Lawfull for any man to take them up ^ retaine 
them in their Custody till the said Summ be paid tff that 


the owners therof forthwth upon the delivery shall Convey 
them away tht they be no more offensive iff the Sarjeant 
shall see that this Law be dewly executed. 

It is further ordered that a place for the Impounding of 
Cattle shall be made iff sett up in some Convenient place of 
each Towne iff that the Treasurer shall see it accomplished iff 
satisfie for itt wthin 30 days after the 5° of May: 1640. 

It is ordered that in Regard of the many Incursions that 
the Island is subjed: unto iff that an Alarum for the Securing 
of the place is necessary therfor itt is thought meet for the 
present that an Alarum be appointed to give notice to all 
who Inhabit the place that they may forthwth repair iff 
gather together to the house of the Judge for the defending 
of the Island or quelling any Insolencies that shall be 
tumultuously raysed wthin the plantation, Therfore the 
Alarum that we appoynt shall be this, Three Musketts to 
bee discharged distinctly iff a Herauld appointed to goe 
speedily throw the Towne iff Crye Alarum, Alarum upon 
wch all are to repaire Immediatly to the place aforesaid." 

(p. ID.) 

The reference to "each Towne" on April 6, 1639, is sug- 
gestive. There is no reason to believe that there was more 
than one town at this time, hence it would appear that the 
formation of another town on the island was already seriously 

Seal of Samuel Gorton 


WILLIAM CODDINGTON, by far the ablest man in 
the plantation, had dominated its affairs from the 
organization of the government in March 1637/8. At that 
time he had been ele(5led to the chief office, the Judgeship, 
and had presided at every recorded town meeting. On 
January 2, 1638/9 a change was made in the government, 
three "Elders" being appointed to "assist the Judge." 
This change may have been due to the acftivity of a minority 
party which was headed by Mrs. Anne Hutchinson. At 
first merely as an expounder of religious ideas she had 
gathered about her a number of followers, but finding that 
Coddington, 4:he head of the political government, was not 
in sympathy with her religious views, and that furthermore 
justice "according to the lawes of God" as interpreted by 
Coddington might readily fall heavily upon her, for it would 
be easy for him to interpret her religious teachings as not 
"according to the lawes of God," Mrs. Hutchinson con- 
verted her religious following into a political faction. 

Coddington's concession of the establishment of a board 
of Elders was cleverly executed, for he succeeded in filling 
all three offices with his own followers, Easton, a religious 
opponent of Mrs. Hutchinson, a preacher of his own ideas, 
Coggeshall, and Brenton. 

Mrs. Hutchinson, finding that the change had strengthened 
rather than weakened Coddington's power, continued her 
political agitation and according to Winthrop "she and her 
party (some three or four families) would have no magis- 


tracy" (p. 51), by which she meant no jurisdidlion of civil 
officers over religious affairs. 

Coddington must have visited Boston about this time, 
for according to the letter quoted below, this conspiracy 
was hatched while he was "in the Baye." 

The " Coup " was skillfully planned, presumably by Gorton 
and Mrs. Hutchinson, and took place on Thursday, April 
28th 1639. It is difficult to reconstruct the scene from the 
fragmentary records. 

However, a town meeting was evidently held on that day, 
and the first business transa(5led was in regard to the Aspin- 
wall case. The record is as follows : 

"On the 28° of the 2° 1639. Upon the Complainte of 
Jeffrey Champlin y In the behalfe of a debt due to Wm 
Cowly y himselfe from Mr Aspinwall, warrant was granted 
forth for the Attachmt of his shallopp till both that debt 
y other Adlions of the Case be satisfied ^ discharged by 
him." (p. 10.) 

One of Aspinwall's crimes, that of sedition, may have 
been his sympathy with the Hutchinson party, and hence the 
discussion of his case may have adted as a spark to kindle 
the Hutchinsonian plot. 

This is the last record of the "old government." The 
surprise must have occurred immediately after the entry, 
and the clerk, Dyre, sympathizing with the old regime did 
not see fit to record the rest of the meeting, which he doubt- 
less considered as out of order. 

In regard to the affair Coddington wrote to Winthrop on 
9 December 1639, "I am removed 12 myles further up in 
to the Hand. Ther they have gathered a Church, ^ doe 
intend to chuse officers shortely, ^ do desire better healpes 
in that kind, when the Lord is pleassed to send them, i^ 
would gladly use what meanes doth lye in us to obtayne 
them. Things are in fare better passe conserning our civill 
governmentt then they have bene, divers Famelyes being 

1639] THE COUP d'etat OF 1639 57 

come in that had revolted from ther owne ade, ^ have 
given satisfadion. Mr. Gorton i^ Mrs. Huchson doth 
oppose it. It was hached when I was last in the Baye, iff 
the Lord, I hope, will shortely putt an esew to it." (M. H. 
S. C, 4, 7, 278.) Winthrop in his Journal under the date, 
II May 1639, wrote: "At Aquiday the people grew very 
tumultuous, and put out Mr. Coddington and the other 
three magistrates, and chose Mr. William Hutchinson only, 
a man of a very mild temper and weak parts, and wholly 
guided by his wife, who had been the beginner of all the 
former troubles in the country, and still continued to breed 
disturbance. They also gathered a church in a very dis- 
ordered way; for they took some excommunicated persons, 
and others who were members of the church of Boston and 
not dismissed." (1,356.) 

It would appear that the Hutchinsonians called for an 
eledlion of officers and that a tumultous meeting ensued. 
The "conspirators" had a majority, for they succeeded in 
carrying their point and eledled a new Judge. 

Coddington and his friends withdrew in anger from the 
meeting and held a meeting of their own. The Clerk, 
William Dyre, sided with Coddington and carried away the 
records with him. In this manner the rebels were enabled 
to enter the records of their meeting in the original record 
book. Nevertheless they began the records of this meeting 
upon a new page and did not make them a continuation 
of the records of the previous meeting of the same day, 
although there was room upon the remainder of that page. 
The entry is as follows : 

"Pocassett on the 28° of the 2°: 1639 
It is Agreed 

By us: whose Hands are under written to Propagate A 
Plantation in the midst of the Island or Elswhere And doe 
ingage our selves to beare Equall charges answerable to our 


Strength and Estates In Comon and that our determina- 
tions shall be by Major voice of judge ^ Elders the Judge 
to have a Double voice." (p. 11.) 

This agreement was never signed, and the names which 
follow it are not signatures, but were written by Wm. Dyre 
as part of the minutes of the meeting of May i6th. The 
difference in the ink establishes this fad:. The record of 
April 28th was written in brown ink, while the names and 
the record of May i6th were written in black ink; and 
from the condition of the ink, it is evident that the names 
and the record of May i6th were written at one time. 

The majority, having eledled their candidates, adjourned, 
and having no record book entered no records. But two 
days later, on Saturday, 30 April 1639, they again met and 
recorded the minutes of the previous meeting as follows: 

"Aprill. 30. i6[39] 

We whose names are underw[ritten do acknowledge] ^ 
ourselves the Loyall subje[^j of^ his Majestic] King Charles, 
and in his m[me do hereby bind our]selves into a Civill body 
Politicke: a[nd do submit] unto his lawes according [to . . ,] 
matters of Justice: 

Willm Hutchinson 
Samuell Gorton 
Samuell Hutchinson 
John Wickes 
Richarde Maggson 
Thomas Spiser 
William Aspinwall 
William Haule 
John Roome R mark 
John Sloffe I mark 
Thomas Bedder X mark 
Erasmus Bullocke 
Sampson Shotten 

1639II THE COUP d'etat OF 1639 59 

Ralph Earle 

Robert Potter 

Nathanyell Potter X mark 

George Potter X mark 

Wm Heavens X mark 

George Cleare X 

George Lawton 

Anthony Paine X his mark 

Jobe Haukins X mark 

Richarde Awards 

John More X his mark 

Nicholas Brownes X his mark 

Wilham Richardson X mark 

John Tripp 

Thomas Layton X his mark 

Robert Stainton his X mark 

John Briggs his X mark 

James Davice X his mark" (Po. R. 7.) 

The names in italics have been crossed out. This was 
probably done when the three men moved away. 

"Aprill. 30th : i[639]i 

According to the true intent of [the foregoing instrument, 
zvee] ^ whose names ar above perticularly [recorded do agree] 
jointly or by the major Voice, to [govern ourselves by the] 
Ruler or Judge amongst us in [a/1 transad:ions] for the space 
y terme of one [yeare, ... he] behaving himself according 
to the t[enor of the same.] 

We have freely made Choice of [William Hutchinson] ' 
to be ruler or Judg Among [us.] 

' The words in brackets are Bartlett's. 

' The words in italics were in the original according to Bartlett 1856, but 
had disappeared by 1901. 

' Name inserted on authority of Williams ^ Winthrop. 


We have also for the helpe i^ ease [of the condudling of] 
pubhque businesse iff affaires for [the colonies] for one 
yeare also, Chosen Unto him [. . .] William Balston, John 
Porter, Jo[. . }] William Freeborne, John Wal[ker. . .] 
Phillipe Shermon, as also w'll [Aspmwall to] lay out landes as 
they sh[all be disposed.] 

We have also made Choice of [. . .] amongst Us for this 
yeare en[suing]." (Po. R. i, 9) 

The words in brackets in the above items were supplied 
by Bartlett (R. 1. C. R. pr. i. 70-71) with the exception 
of the names William Hutchinson and Walker. Bartlett 
gives Walker as Wall, but there was no John Wall at Ports- 
mouth and k at the edge of a torn sheet might easily re- 
semeble /. 

Robert Baylie in "A Dissuasive from the Errours of the 
Time," (London, 1645, p. 150) wrote: 

"IVIr. Williams related to me, that Mistris Hutchinson 
(with whom he was familiarly acquainted, and of whom he 
spake much good) after she had come to Rid Island, and 
her husband had beene made Governour there, she per- 
suaded him to lay downe his Office upon the opinion which 
newly she had taken up of the unlawfulnesse of Magistracy." 

In the second edition (1646), the word "beene" appears 
as "been" and a comma appears after "office." 

From the fadt that the aforesaid minutes are recorded 
in the past tense it might be inferred that they had been 
enacted previously, i.e. on April 28, and that the following 
items, being in the present tense, are the adlual minutes of 
the meeting at which they were recorded, i.e. April 30. 

"It is appoynted tht theire shalbe [a court held every] 
yeare, evry quarter one for [. . .] to doe right betwixt 
man y [man ... a] Jury of 12 men, as also it is [ordered 
that] the Eight men chosen \i[nto him. shall hold a] meeting 
amongst themsel[z><?j to consult together] as also to put an 

^ Probably John Sanford. 


THE COUP d'etat OF 1639 


end to any controver[2;f3'] if it amount not to the Value of 
io[rtie shillings] the Judge wth the rest of the eight [men 
shall decide . . . ] it brought to the pubhke court. 

The quarter courts ar to bee the [first Thursday in June ^] 
next the second, first thursd[ay in September the third] the 
first thursday in decembe[r fourth to be the] day of Election 
of new officer[s the first Thursday] in IVIarch. 

And for the Monthly courts to [be the last Thursday] in 
the month." (Po. R. i, 9) 

^ Words in brackets supplied by the Editor; see previous note. 

Seal of John Clark 


OWING to the mutilated condition of the Portsmouth 
records we have very incomplete minutes of the 
town's proceedings. There are, however, fragmentary 
records of four monthly meetings on page 1 1, which appear to 
have been held previous to the last Thursday, 31 October, 
1639, for the minutes of that meeting are at the top of 
page 12. If their meetings were held regularly on the last 
Thursday of each month, it would appear that the records on 
page II were for the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th months and 
that the records of the meeting of the 30 May 1639 were 
probably on a lost page. 

"At a Monthly meeting the [last Thursday in the 4th 
mo.] 1639. 

Job Haukins was granted one House [lott neare] 
the west 

side of the swampe to buld on [within one year or to] 
be forfitt at the 
yeares end. 

It It is ordered tht meddowes 2i{hove . . . ^e] 
laid out according to ech mans 
prp[ortion]" (Po. R. 11) 

"At a quarter meeting the [first Thursday in] 
the 5th mo. 1639. 
these th[. . .] 

That evry man that hath a house [lot . . .] 
shall buld upon the 
same wthin on[e yeare ... or] he loaseth it. 


mr. Thomas Spicer l^ Robert Potter ar[e hereby] 
chosen Surveyers 
for the hiewayes, l^ . . . 
come in, two, foure, or six daies a[^ . . .] 
this y the 29 of 7 mo. next, y if the nece . . . 
as he cannot come or prcure a man, he . . . 
day to the surveyers i^ the surveyers [to make report at] 
the Court at 
the yeares end. 

It is agreed upon to call this towne [Portsmouth] 
To Richard Haukins is granted one ho[use lot to build on 

one yeare or to be forfitt 

To Thomas Slaid is granted one house lot [to build on] 
upon the said 

To Tho : Waite one house lott next mr. [Wickes] 
To Edward Fisher one house lott next [him]" (Po. R. 13) 

"At a Monthly meeting the last t\)[ursday in the 5th mo.] 
It is ordered that no man shall sell his lott or [meadow unless 

he first] 
offer it to the boddy heare in Portsmouth 
It is ordered tht John Porter ^ Tho: Spiser [shall receive 

from the] 
inhabitants of the laitly purchased meddo[ws . . .] 
theire monyes for 
this yeare i^ bring it [to the Tozvne] 
It is agreed upon tht theire shalbe tend . . . 
Joyning wth him to putt our matter o . . . 
2 among themselves, ^ we tow amo . . . 
ende it, to referr it to 4 men of [righ 
tow, they other two, 

It is ordered that wm. Freeborne ^ R . . . 
about the corne Feilds of both sid . . . 
man maintaine his own Fen[ce . . .] 


to be maintained by the whole feilde, . . . 
the owners theirof are to pay the d . . ." 

(Po. R. II) 
"At a Monthly meet[ing the last Thursday in the 6th mo.] 
It is ordered tht no man shall g . • . 
shall loase his lott heare, ti . . . 

"At a Mont[hly meeting the last Thursday in the 7th mo.] 
To John Alborah [Albro] wa[s granted a house lot on] 
condition of 

buil[ding within a yeare] 
To John Vane [Vaughn] one [house lot . . .] " 

(Po. R. II) 

"[At a monthly meet]ing the last thursday in the 8th mo. 


. . . one House lott next John Vane [Vaughn] upon the 
said tear 

[mes . . .] tht wch was George Gardiners grownd in the 

[. . . t] 

ow more next it, upon the vew of [sd] Balston iff 

[ ] 

in the said North feild to plow 

[ ] land at the Comon seller on the neck from wm 

[. . . Hu]tchisons 

lott." (Po. R. 12) 

"At a quarter Meeting the first Thursd[ay in the 8 mo] 1639 
Nicholas Browne doth dismisse himself of [hi . . .] 

the govourment heare 

[y] Meddowes formerly granted 

[. . . h]ie way adioyninng to mr Coddingtons garden 

him wth the Httl marsh wthout the Comon fenc nex the 

. . . xt vnto him 

next vnto him 

next him iff one at the end of his lott on the neck 

. . . t mr wilbore 


... en the salt Crick iff his lotte 


ge [4 Rood left for a hie way to the spring] Tow acre 

him i Ac. 

halfe next vnto him 

xt vnto him 

tow Ac next to him 

next to them, 

vnto him 

halfe next vnto him beyond the hieway. 

t to him 

halfe next to him 

[ G]eorg Layton iff Tho Laiton to ech halfe an ac 

next him 

e of the ponde 

ne Ac next next his house 

tton i Ac next to him 

i Acr next to him 

i Ac next to him 

next to him 

iff [^] halfe next to him 

at the ponds mouth next the North sea 

[...... Mjeddow of the Northwest side of the Towne 

end of the meddow 2 Ac of upland 

[ u]nto h[im] 3 Ac of meddow, 

ac of meddow 

t to him 

xt to them 

xt to them 

xt to him 

meddow, wth an addition of vpland to 

o the Meddowe 

. . . estward beyond the long Meddow. from the sea 

eddow;" (Po. R. 13-14) 

"[At a monthly m]eeting the last thursday in 9 Mo. 


[. . . granjted 6 ac of planting ground at his Meddow 

. . . next John Motts upon the former condition of 

(Po. R. 12) 

Coddington, as soon as he was well established at Newport, 
endeavored to extend his power over the whole island by 
uniting the towns under one government. On Dec. 9, 1639 
he wrote Winthrop in the letter previously quoted: "Things 
are in fare better passe conserning our civill governmentt 
then they have bene, divers Famelyes being come in that 
had revolted from ther owne adle, ^ haue given satisfac- 
tion. Mr. Gorton ^ Mrs. Huchson doth oppose it." (M. H. 
S. C. 4, 7, 279.) 

From this it would appear that some of the Portsmouth 
men had already acknowledged the authority of the Newport 
government, and in confirmation we find that Robert 
Stanton and George Gardiner were admitted freemen at 
Newport 17 Dec. 1639 and Baulston seems to have become 
on very close terms of friendship with Coddington for the 
latter adds as a postscript to the said letter. 

"Mr. John Cogshall, Mr. Willm. Brenton, iff Sergant 
Balstone doe desire to have their service presented to your 

"[At a Monthly] meeting the 10 mo. 1639 

house lotte next beyond mr. Cowland on the 

the former condition of bulding wthin 

tow house lotts of the east side of the swampe 

next the Coupers upon Condition of 

y selling the 3d lott bought of Anthony 

good behaviour" (Po. R. 12) 

"[At a Monthly meetijng the ii mo. 1639 

have bene divers times trobled wth Claimes 

ing an equall right wth the purchasers to 

tion, wch is contrary to what is declared 


at our entrance into this combination 

tuall peace, tht all such Claimes should 

have his lands layed out to him as 

uppon the receite of theire monyes" (Po. 

R. 12) 

"At a meeting the loth of the 12 mo. 163 [9] 
y further confirmed the 18 of the said [mo.] 

It is Mutually agreed by the p 
that these quanteties of grow 
in these places following. 
William Hutchison Four Hundred 
North side of the salt Crick at Sachua East, y bo 
on the west ^ soe to ronne Northward, 
John Sanforde Tow hundred 13 Fourtie Acre 
William Aspinwall Tow hundred Acres ab 
Sandy poynte of the same side to pay 
Philip Shermon Tow Acres ab 
from the Towne of the same side 

Of the west side 
William Freeborne One hundredth ^ Fortie Acr 
at his little Meddow 13 soe sowth west, 
John Walker one hundred Acres ne 

William Balston Tow hundreth Acr 
brooke on the North East end of his Meddow 

John Porter Tow hundreth Acres 
Edwarde Hutchison Tow Hundret 
y if theire be noe Meddows within hi 
of Tow Acres he is to have Tow 
Porters Meddow, 

Richard Carder Thirtie Ac next 


It is also ordered that the afForsaid 
the one halfe of theire lande 
regarde of theire first advento 
Also it is ordered tht Robt Potter sha 
som losses he had by the heard 
Adam Mote fower scoere and 
Brooke next mr William B 
ward" (Po. R. 15) 

At this special meeting of 18 Feb. 1639/40, the first enact- 
ment passed 25 July 1639 and the enacftment passed 29 Aug. 
1639 were repealed. (Po. R. Marginal notes, page 11) 

Coddington, having the original deed in his own name 
and the oflicial records, practically controlled all the land 
titles, and this in itself must have been a strong argument 
to the Portsmouth men to submit to the Newport govern- 
ment. What influence, conscious or subconscious, this 
may have had on Mrs. Hutchinson's sudden opinion of the 
unlawfulness of Magistracy, as related by Roger Williams 
(see p. 60), we can only conjecflure, but by persuading her 
husband to lay down his office, she removed the chief 
obstacle to the union of the two towns. Gorton and his 
party still opposed the union, but they were an unimportant 
minority. Coddington on his part seems to have off^ered, as 
a compromise, annual elecftions; and as a result, on 12 March 
1639/40 at a General Court held at Newport, eighteen Ports- 
mouth men were received as Freemen. William Hutchin- 
son was ele(5led one of the assistants, doubtless in recognition 
of the service he rendered the Coddington facRiion by re- 
nouncing his office. 

Seal of Robert JeoflFrey 


ACCORDING to the notes of Nicholas Easton's son, 
Peter, Newport was founded May ist 1639. The note 
reads, "(Sine) Nuport began may first 30 1639." These 
notes were written on one of the blank pages of an almanac 
for 1669, and the 30 refers to the fadl that the entry was in 
regard to an event which occurred 30 years earlier, (Peter 
Easton Mss. Amer. Antiq, Soc.) He adds: "(Sine.) the 
first hous built in nuport in may 1639 30" (ibid.) 

In an edition of Morton's Memorial of 1669, which he 
bought in November of that year, Peter Easton wrote in the 
margin of a page dealing with 1639: "This year id 3m we 
came to newport" and "In the beginning of May this year 
the Eastons came to Newport in Road Hand and builded 
ther the first English building and ther planted this year 
and coming by boat they lodged at the Hand caled coasters 
harbour the last of April 1639 and the First of May in the 
morning gave that Hand the Name of Coasters Harbour 
and from thence came to Newport the same Day." (R. I. 
H. S. C. XII, 80.) 

From this it would appear that the Eastons left Pocasset 
on April 30, 1639, and proceeded by boat down Narragansett 
Bay along the west shore of Aquidneck, and began the settle- 
ment of Newport on i May 1639. Coddington and the 
rest of his followers joined the Eastons very soon, if they 
did not accompany them, and a town meeting was held 
16 May, 1639. 


Henry Bull (in the Rhode Island Republican for 29 May, 
1832; Newport) in his "Memoir of R. Island," wrote: 

*'We have now arrived at that period of our history when 
the settlement of the town of Newport first commenced; 
the land fronting on the harbor where Thames street now is, 
was then an impenetrable swamp, which circumstance so 
discouraged the settlers that they once concluded to locate 
the town near the Beach; but on further survey they found 
the roadstead altogether unsafe for shipping, which obliged 
them to resort again to the spot where Newport now stands; 
when they rounded and Examined the harbor, and finding 
it safe and commodious, they concluded to encounter the 
swamp and establish the town on its margin; then they 
voted, that it should be built upon both sides of the spring, 
and so by the sea side southward. The place thus described 
was a running spring, and was in the place where the fountain 
is now, on the west side of Spring street a short distance 
south easterly from the State House. The stream from this 
spring run about North West into the river (as it was then 
called) which now runs under the Jail, and about this spring, 
and on both sides the stream running down into the harbor, 
was intended for the place to commence building the town. 
By their saying both sides the spring, we understand as 
meaning not only the source but the stream. Marlborough 
Street was the first street built upon which ran to the harbor, 
and wharves were first built into the cove. On the North 
side of that street Gov. Coddington's house was built, which 
is now standing and fronts Duke street." 

"The fountain mentioned by Mr. Bull has recently been 
covered by the erection of a stable on the land of the heirs 
of Edward Hazard, on Spring street, at the foot of Barney." 
(Footnote of R. I. Hist. Mag. VII, 192.) 

The town record to which Mr. Bull referred in the above 
quotation is that of the first meeting held in Newport, and 
is as follows: 


"Wm. Coddington, Judge, John Clarke 

Nicholas Easton, j Jeremy Gierke 

John Coggeshall, > Elders, Thomas Hazard 
William Brenton, J Henry Bull 

W Dyre, Seer: 

i6th 3d 1639 

It is Agreed y ordered, that the Plantacon now begun 
att this South west end of the Island shall be called Newport; 
and that all the Lands lying Northward ^ Eastward from 
the sd Towne towards Pocassett for the space of five miles. 
And so to cross from sea to sea, wth all the Lands Southward 
i^ westward, bounded wth the maine sea together wth the 
small Islands And the grass of Cunnunnegott is appointed 
for the accommodation of the sd Towne. 

It is ordered that every such Servant as shall abide wth 
any of us that first Came forth shall upo their deu 
admission, have Tenn acres of Land given unto them 

It is ordered that the Towne shall be built up on both 
the sides of the spring iff by the seaside Southward." 

(LR.p. II.) 

The names of nine of the Coddington followers are thus 
made known to us. It will be noted that they did not hold 
an eledlion, but retained the offices that they had previously 
held. Dyre however signs as Secretary instead of Clerk. 
Coddington did not believe in ele(5lions, apparently claiming 
an indefinite or life tenure for these oflSces. 

The first record of the Newport government was made 
at Pocasset on the day of the schism. The clerk, William 
Dyre, withdrew from the meeting with Coddington and 
took the record book. The Coddington fadlion held a 
meeting on their own account, and Dyre entered the fol- 
lowing record of it: 


"Pocassett. On the 28° of the 2d: 1639. 

It is Agreed 
By us whose Hands are under written, to Propagate A 
Plantation in the midst of the Island or Elsewhere And doe 
ingage our selves to beare Equall charges answerable to our 
Strength and Estates In Comon and that our determina- 
tions shall be by Major voice of Judge iff Elders the Judge 
to have a Double voice." 

(I. R. II.) 

Besides retaining the original record book, Coddington 
had, by not giving deeds, retained in "himself and friends" 
all title to the real estate, and thus had two valuable political 
and legal weapons for later use. The "double voice " given to 
the Judge is an example of Coddington's political ability. 

Nevertheless, considering discretion the better part of 
valor, the minority decided to leave Pocasset. 

It would seem probable that all the Indians did not 
remove from Aquidneck when the settlers founded Pocasset, 
and that some remained at the south end of the island. 
When the Coddington party decided to settle there it 
became advisable to have those remaining Indians removed, 
and this was accomplished through the exertions of Mian- 
tonomi and two lesser sachems. Gratuities were given to 
these Indians for their services, and the following receipts 
were signed by them: 

"the nth day of May 1639. Received by me Mian- 
tunnomu (as a gratuety) of Mr. Coddington and his Friends 
unitted for my paines and Travill in removeing off the 
natives off on the Island of Aquednecke tenn fathom of 
Wampum peage and one broad cloth coate 

«T^ A/r ^ Mian ^^^ tannomu 

"Dat. May 14. 1639 

Recieved of Mr. William Coddington and his friends 


unitted to him, in full satisfadlion for grownd broken up 
or any other title or claime whatsoe-ever, formerly had of the 
Island of Aquednecke, the full sum of five fathom of wam- 
pum peage and a Coate 

Weshaganesett, his marke 


Miantinomu, his marke 

> D> 

Hugh Durdall 

Thomas Sabery 4f"^"^Cr* his marke" 

"June 20th 1639 

Received from Mr, William Coddington and of his 
Friends unitted to him in full satisfaction of grownd broken 
up or any other title or claime whatsoever formerly had of 
the Island of Aquednecke, the full sum of five Fathom of 
wampum peage. 

Wonimenatony f his marke 

William Cowling 
Richard Sawell" 

(I. R. 68.) 


Elizabeth C. Brenton in the Newport Mercury for August 
13, 1853 (reprinted, Newport, 1877, p. 5), gives in a different 
wording the tradition recorded by Bull (p. 70), and 

*'The tall forest trees which luxuriantly grew from the 
bottom to the summit of the hill, were first cut away, and 
then coming downward to marshy ground, made impene- 
trable by low brush, the work was suspended by order of 
the corporation, until they could plan some way to pursue 
their obje(5l, when one day a canoe approached the shore 
near Coaster's Harbor, where Nicholas Easton Wm Brenton, 
and Thomas Hazard were standing, one of the three ad- 
dressed the Indians and very pleasantly inquired what they 
would take to clear that swamp; and after some moments 
silence one of the Indians replied, "if you will give me 
your coat, the pale faces shall have the land made clear." 
The coat was given, and having large brass buttons upon 
it, the Indian cut them off", and putting them on a string 
he tied a knot between each, and placed them round his 
neck, for an ornament. The Indians soon after fired the 
swamp, and by the assistance of the whites, it was in 
time cleared and filled in with gravel and sand, and 
thus, after much labor, made sufficiently firm for building 

A tradition which is first recorded in writing over 200 
years after the event is of course of little historical value. 
Miss Brenton states that much of her information is derived 
from the papers of Benjamin Brenton, who obtained much 
of his information from Doctor Jonathan Easton. 

5 of 4 

It is ordered that all the meadow grounds lying wthin 
the Circuitt and bounds of Nuport shall be Layd out after 
the rate iff proportion of Twentie Cowes meat to a division 
of Three hundred acres of upland and it is ordered that 


Mr John Clark Mr JeofFreys Tho: Hazard i^ Wm Dyre or 
any three of them, by the major vote shall proportion it 
forth dewlie, iS that the sd Companie which shall lay it forth 
shall have foure pence an acre for every acree. 

About the same time the Secretarie being absent and the 
body meeting they did agree that the Land might reason- 
ably accomodate thoss that were iff as many as would bee 
fiftie families; wch agreemt being left wth Mr Easton is not 
readily to be found, but tht there was such an agreemt most 
then y ther present do confidently remember, therfor a 
space I leave to insert it. 

It is ordered that the home allotmts shall be foure acres 
a peece laid out Conveniently wher the ground affords iff 
that Mr Coddington shall have six acres for an orchard 
Laid out as Conveniently as cann bee" (L R. p. 12.) 

"11° 5° 

It is agreed, tht Mr Clark Mr Jeoffreys iff Wm Dyre shall 
have full powre to lay out all the Lands for the townes 
accommodations as well upland as Medow, as also all high- 
wayes wth the home allotmts, i^ the disposition of Severall 
farmes to the prsons Inhabiting according to the proportion 
that shall be allotted by the Judg iff Elders and are to have 
2 an acre for the great lotts laying forth EXP, 

2 7 

It is Agreed that Thomas Hazard iff Mr Jeoffreys are 
imbraced as freeman by this Body. 

Upon some differences arising Concerning the Trad wth 
the Indians it is agreed that Mr Brento iff Mr John Clark 
shall informe Mr Jeoffreys of the prticulars, and then Mr. 
Jeoffreys shall determine the Cause. 

It is also determined that Mr Jeoffreys shall have the 
hearing iff deciding of the matters Concerning the dammages 
done by the Cattle upo the planted Corne in the Circuit of the 


Towne y that such who hath been so endammaged shall 
repair to him. 

It is agreed that the trad with the Indians shall be free 
to all men ^c 

It is ordered that if Mr Jeoffreys cannot joyntlie goe 
along with the rest, in the Laying forth of the Lands, then 
Mr Easton is to goe along ^ prforme the sd service in Mr 
Jeoffreys Roome, who have full power to dispose of all 
Circumstances, as fencings U timber wth other Conven- 
iences as may paralell the impropriations according to their 
best discretions. 

I of 8th. 

It is ordered that every first Tewsday in the Moneth, the 
Judge y Elders shall assemble together to heare iff deter- 
mine all such Causes as shall be presented. 

It is ordered that Mr Robert Jeoffreys is Eledled Threarer 
of this Body for on whole yeare or till a new be chosen, y 
that Mr Jeremy Clarke shall assist him in taking up the 
accounts of the old Treasurer. 

Upo an account of the Secretaries for Service done to the 
Body divers wayes a bill of 19^^ ^ ten acres of Land was 
assigned to be pd him by the Threarer and to Serjeant Bull 
for Service by him done 6^ 

It is agreed that Mr Foster is received as a freeman of 
this Bodie 

It is agreed that in the Quarter Courts the determinations 
of matters in hand shall be by major vote the Judg having 
his dowble vote, who also shall have power to putt it to vote 
y to gather up the votes." (I. R. 13) 

"The 22th of Novembr 1639 

Rc'd by mee Miantunomu of Mr. William Coddington 
and his Friends united Twenty and three Coates and 
thirteen howes to distribute to the Indians that did Inhabitt 


off the Island of Aquednecke in full of all promisses, Debts, 
and demands for the said Island as allso two tarkepes 

Mian I tunnomu 

Witnes Can I- J nonicus 




(I. R. p. 68.) 
"By the Body Politicke 
in the He of Aqethnec 
Inhabiting this presant 
25° of 9°: m: 1639 
In the fourteenth yeare of the Raigne of our 
Soveraign Lord King Charles 
It is agreed 
That as Naturall Subjeds to our Prince, ^ subjed to his 
Lawes All matters that Concerne the Peace shall bee by 
those that are officers of the Peace Transaded, And All 
anions of the Case or Dept shall be in such Courts as by 


order are Here appointed, and b}^ such Judges as are De- 
puted, Heard and Legally Determined. 

Given at Nieu-Port on the 
Quarter Courte Day which 
was adjourned till ths Day 

William Dyre Seer 

Mr Jeremy Clarke is Chosen Constable for one whole 
yeare or till a new be Chosen And is to Attend that service 
according to the Law in that Case provided. 

Mr. William Foster is Chosen Clerke of the Train Band, 
y is to attend that service till another be Chosen who is 
presently to take a view of the Armes and to Returne the 
defFedls the next Courte but one 

It is ordered ^ Agreed upon that the Body of the people, 
viz. the Traine Band shall have Free libertie to select l^ 
chuse prsons one or more from Among themselves As they 
would have to be officers among them, to excercise i^ Traine 
them; And then to present them to the Magistrats for their 

It is ordered that Mr Robt Jefferies shall Traine the Band 
for the present. 

It is ordered that no man shall goe two miles from the 
Towne unarmed eyther with Gunn or Sword and that none 
shall Come to any Publick Meeting without his weapon, 
upon the default of eyther he shall forfeitt five shillings. 

It is further ordered that those Commissioners formerly 
appointed to negotiate the Business with or Brethren of 
Pocassett shall give them or propositions under their 
hands and shall require their propositions under their 
hands with their answers ^ shall give reply unto itt And 
so shall returne to the Body a Breive of what they therein 
have done. 

By order Mr Easson Iff Mr John Clarke are desired to 
informe Mr Vane by writting of the state of things here and 


desire him to Treate about the obtaining off a patent of 
the Island from his Matie and Hkewise to writt to Mr 
Thomas Burrwood Brother to Mr Easson Concerning the 
same thing. 

The Courte is adjourned to this day three weekes." 
(I. R. 16.) 

Two exceedingly important matters were under consid- 
eration, namely the uniting of the Island under one gov- 
ernment, and the obtaining of royal recognition of this 

"At the prticular Courte holden the 3d of the ioth 1639 

John Bartlett and John Hudson being convented and as 
well by wittness as their owne Confession found guiltie of 
the Breach of the Peace by their excess in drinking, is 
adjudged to pay five shilHngs a peece unto the Hands of the 
Constable according to the Law in the case provided." 

(I. R. 16) 

In the postscript of a letter dated Dec. 9, 1639, Codding- 
ton styles Balston, "Sergant Balston." (M. H. S. C. 4, 7, 

"At the Generall Quarter Court wch was adjourned to 
this present 17° of io° mo i639 

Mr Eastone for breach of an Order in Coming to the 
pubUke meeting wthout his weapon according to that order 
is to paie five shillings 

Whereas according to a former Order Mr Clerk was to 
assist Mr. JefFeries Treasurer, for the taking up of the 
Accounts off the old Treasurer, wch accordinglie they have 
done, y Exhibited the same into the Courte, wch have 
passed. And ther is found to Remaine due to Mr. Coggeshall 
the Sum of £57: 2j: ^d; wch the Treasurer now being 
shall pay unto him wth all Convenient speed, allowing 
suficient satisfadlion for the forbearance therof from this 
present day. 


Itt is Ordered that those who are appointed to lay forth 
the lands, shall (in Regard of some naturall bounds lying 
neare unto the farme of Mr. Will Coddington Judge;) have 
full powre to add unto the sd farme such prcell or prcells 
of land as may extend to thoss Bounds according as their 
discretions shall guid them, when they Come to a veiw 
therof prvided that Mr Coddington Judge shall pay into 
the Treasurie so much monie (according to the order) as 
the overplus of his proportion amounts unto. 

It is ordered that the Treasurer shall pay no monies unto 
any prson till he be Authorized by warrant signed under 
the hands of the Judge ^ some of the Elders, the wch shall 
be to him of sufficient Authoritie to pay all such bils so 

It is Agreed that Wm Cowlie Robt Feild George Gardiner 
Robert Stanton Thomas Clerk iff Joseph Gierke are admitted 
iff imbraced as Freemen into this Body Politike. 

It is agreed iff ordered that the Secretarie shall take notes 
of all dammages of the Towne, iff shall implead such as shall 
be delinquents; Legalie. And in every defPed: therof shall 
forfeit fortie shillings. 

It is Ordered that ther shall be sufficient fences eyther 
hedge or post iff raile made about the Corne grownds that 
shall be planted or sowne by the i of May next iff if any man 
shall be found a delinquent therin he shall forfeitt for every 
rod that is defedlive the Sum of 3J": 4J: 

It is ordered that no man shall keep any Hoggs about 
the Towne except it be wthin his owne inclosure after the 
15° of Aprill untill the 15° of October upon the forfeiture of 
4(i a foote, iff the former orders are Repealed. 

Itt is ordered that ther shall be provision made of Bulls 
into the Towne, A Bull to every twentie Cows and heyfers 
by the first of May, i640. 

Itt is Ordered that keepers shall bee appointed to the 
severall beards of Cattle from the 15° of April to the i of 


November, iff that the spare cattle shall be separated from 
the milch Beasts iff kept att Sachuis. 

It is ordered that the Lands shall not be fired till the i° 
of March iff so for fourteen days to Continue iff that if 
eyther Indyan or English shall fire any before or after, they 
are liable to such dammages as may be incurred thereby: ^ 

It is Ordered that the Treasurer shall forthwth provide a 
pr of Stocks iff a whipping post to be sett in some such place 
as he shall have Order for in the town of Niewport." 

(I. R. p. 18.) 

"At the Particular Courte held 
on the 7° of ii° 1639 

Wheras it was ordered that the Gierke of the Band should 
take Notice of what defects were in the Armes among the 
Traine Band; iff to make Returne therof at the Sessions of 
this Courte wch being prformed It is further ordered tht 
the Corporall shall forthwth give warning to all such who 
are defe(5live to make their appearance before the Judge 
wthin these tenn days, to give answere for their defiiciencies 
therin; iff further it is Ordered that every Traine Souldier 
shall be provided sufficiently of his owne Armes by the last 
day of Aprill i640 as they shall answeere it att their prill. 

Wheras Complainte was made by the Secretarie on the 
behalfe of the Towne of Nieuport agst Ralph Earle for his 
falling of Timber, Contrarie to order, iff suitt made accord- 
inglie in the Courte. By the Courte it was ordered that 
the sd Ralph Earle iff Mr Willbore his Copartner shall serve 
the Towne wth good sufficient Stuff", Vidz with sawn board 
att 8s the hundred iff ^ inch board, at ys: to be dd at the 
pitt by the water side; iff Clapboard iff Paile at lid a. foote 
by the Stubb sound iff good sufficient merchandisable ware 
iff futher it is Ordered that the sd Mr Willbore iff Ralph 
Earle shall not make sale of any of the Timber wthin the 

^ According to a marginal note this order was subsequently repealed. 


Bounds of the Towne of Nieuport nor Transport any of it 
(eyther whole or broken) to any other Plantation wthout 
licence as they shall Answere it at their Prill." (I. R. 8) 
"At a Generall Assembly of the Body, 22° Jan: i6^g: 
Upon A Survey of the Corne wth the prsons inhabiting 
the Towne, the Corne arising to io8 bushells i^ the persons 
196: It is thfore ordered tht the sd Corne shall be propor- 
tioned forth one bush iff half a peck to each prson wch is to 
supply the sd prson for the space of six weeks ensuing the 
date hereof; prvided tht such who shall lend their Corne 
shall in due time be repaied as soone as a supply can be made. 
Whereas the Generall Q Courte doth fall on the 2d of 
feb. wch being the Lord's day upon serious Consideration it 
is assigned to be kept foure days sooner being the 29° of 
ths prsent month." (I. R. p. 18.) 

"At the Quarter Courte 
held the 29 of Januarie i639: 

It is Ordered that Mr Jeremie Clarke shall supply the 
Trear place till his Returne from the Dutch. 

It is ordered iff Ordayned that once in the yeare forever 
hereafter namelie the twelfth day of March: The Judge iff 
Elders y all other Officers of this Bodie incorp shall bee in 
the Generall Courte or Assembly to be held for that day or 
time Newlie chosen, for the yeare ensuing by such greater 
prte of the Bodie of Freemen, then or ther present, iff such 
as shall be necessarily detained to send in their votes sealed 
up to the Judge. 

It is ordered that on the 6° of march ensuing the Bodie 
shall assemble together for the Recording of the Lands 
according to the order in that Case made on the Sessions 
held the 27°of 4°i638: 

It is ordered that the Secretarie shall Commend and 
advise wth the Judge iff Elders Concerning such suitts iff 
Cases as he shall have information of." (I. R. p. 19.) 





O R 

A Narative of New-Englands 



That while old^ngland is becoming new^ 
NemrEngldm is become Old 

Alfo four Propofals to the Honoured Pajrliatt^snt an^Councd of tmti 
touching the way to Prof agate the Goffel ofChri^ (' with finall 
charge and gtcatlafey).bo>th in OH iEwg/rfwa and Hew. - 

Alfo four condufloos t6ucBir^ die faith and wder of the Gofj^ of 
• Chriftoutofhislart Will and Tcftamsnt, ^n&piedand |iAified 

By J o'li )i C t A R K jPhyficiao ofRodcIfland in 'Amerr- 

^'?i. 3ehml Come qnicijl^^ 

' "tw'\ ' .." " » i* i "" ' — . .» _-.~ ~ '- 

' . . * L Q N*P 'O.N^ ' 

"PlM&dby H^mj Hi7/r living in Tleet-Xurd vntu d«0£ » tfeciScj^ 

From original in John Carter Brown Library, Providence. 


"At A General Assembly of the 
Body on the 6° of March: 

Wheras according to Order Mr Nicholas Eston Mr John 
Clarke ^ Wm Dyre was appointed to lay forth all such Lands 
as by the Judge iff Elders were proportioned forth to that 
purpose a schedule was given them from the Courte of such as 
they had appointed them to accomodate who according to 
their best Judgmts iff discerning have prformed the same iff 
exhibited a map therof to this Generall Courte, wch is 
accepted and ratified therby; And are discharged of the 
service by the authority therof. 

It is ordered that All the Sea Banks is free for Fishing 
to the Towne of Nieuport. 

Itt is ordered that such that shall bring in their acquit- 
tances from the Trear to the Judge iff Elders shall have 
their Lands Recorded," (L R. p. 19.) 

Seal of Ezekiel Holliman 



ALTHOUGH the Aquidneck settlers were deeply in- 
terested in religious affairs, they do not seem to have 
immediately formed a church organization. 

The construction of a meeting-house was authorized by 
the town meeting on May 13, 1638, but there is no evidence 
to show that it was immediately built or even begun. (See 
Chap. V.) 

The settlers at first were probably all adherents to the 
docflrines of Mrs. Hutchinson.^ Soon however the teachings 
of Nicholas Easton ^ and John Clark ^ began to make 
proselytes, while Coddington in his theocratic office of 
Judge interpreted Scripture and determined without appeal 
the relation of temporal and spiritual matters. 

Such religious differences doubtless prevented the organi- 
zation of a church, and the building of a meeting-house. 
One Heme ^ and after him Samuel Gorton ^ brought still 
other religious views to the Island. After the political 
separation of the two towns, which indeed seems largely to 
have been due to religious as well as political disagreements, 
a church was established at Newport, before Dec. 9th, 1639, 
under the leadership of Clark and the protection of Cod- 
dington. Lechford in 1641 records that this church had 
been dissolved through dissension. Meanwhile three new 

1 See Doc. Hist, of R. I. vol. i, p. 95. ^ See Chap V. 

' In Sept. 1638 Winthrop styles Clark: "A physician and a preacher to 
those at the Island", (p. 271.) 

< See Chap. V. = See Chap. VI. 


religious teachers, Mr. LenthalV Mr. Doughty ^ and Ezekiel 
HolHman ^ arrived on the island, and added new fuel to the 
religious unrest. 

In May, 1639, referring to the colonists at Aquidneck, 
Winthrop wrote: "They also gathered a church in a very 
disordered way; for they took some excommunicated per- 
sons, and others who were members of the church of Boston 
and not dismissed." (p. 297.) 

It is not clear whether Winthrop intended to refer to 
Portsmouth or Newport, but probably to the latter, for as 
late as July 20, 1640, Francis Hutchinson stated that he 
knew of no church at Portsmouth (see later) ; but this state- 
ment was an attempt to appease the Boston church, rather 
than to give an historical survey of Portsmouth. 

Coddington in a letter written Dec. 9, 1639, said: 

"I am removed 12 myles further up in the Hand. Ther 
they have gathered a Church, i^ doe intend to chuse officers 
shoretly, iff do desire better healpes in that kind, when the 
Lord is pleassed to send them, ^ would gladly use what 
meanes doth lye in us to obtayne them. Things are in 
fare better passe conserning our civill government. . . ." 
(M. H. S. C. 4, 7, 278.) 

Lechford, writing in England in January, 1641/2, and 
referring to conditions in New England between March and 
August, 1640, wrote: 

"At the Island called Aquedney, are about two hundred 
families. There was a Church, where one master Clark 
was Elder: The place where the Church was, is called New- 
port, but that Church, I heare, is now dissolved; as also 
divers Churches in the Country have been broken up and 
dissolved through dissention. At the other end of the 
Island there is another towne called Portsmouth, but no 

1 See Chap. XI. 

2 Francis Doughty, formerly at Taunton, and subsequently at Long Island. 
^ See page 92. 


Church: there is a meeting of some men, who there teach 
one another, and call it Prophesie. These of the Island 
have a pretended civill government of their owne eredlion, 
without the Kings Patent. There lately they whipt one 
master Gorton, a grave man, for denying their power, and 
abusing some of their Magistrates with uncivill tearmes; 
the Governour, master Coddington, saying in Court, Tou 
that are for the King, lay hold on Gorton; and he againe, on the 
other side, called forth, All you that are for the King, lay hold 
on Coddington; whereupon Gorton was banished the Island: 
so with his wife and children he went to Providence. They 
began about a small trespasse of swine, but it is thought 
some other matter was ingredient. 

At Providence,^ which is twenty miles from the said 
Island, lives master Williams, and his company, of divers 
opinions; most are Anabaptists; they hold there is no true 
visible Church in the Bay, nor in the world, nor any true 
Ministrie. This is within no Patent, as they say; but they 
haveof latea kind of government also of their owne ere(5tion." 
(Lechford 41, M. H. S. C. 3, 3, 96.) 

In the Lechford manuscript, which is preserved at the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, the following interesting 
variations occur. 

Clark is styled "Pastor" instead of "Elder," and the 
following addition appears: "There is Mr. Lenthall, a 
minister out of ofRce and imployment, and lives poorly. 
Mr. Doughty also is come to this Island. The place where 
the church is, is called New porte." (M. H. S. C. 3, 3, 403.) 

Under the date of (i) 24] i.e. March 24, 1639/40, Win- 
throp records: 

"the church of Boston sent three brethren, viz. Capt. 
Edward Gibbons, Mr. Hibbins, and Mr. Oliver the younger, 
with letters to Mr. Coddington and the rest of our members 
at Aquiday, to understand their judgments in divers points 

' Note in the marginal heading "Providence" is called "New Providence." 


of religion, formerly maintained by all, or divers of them, and 
to require them to give account to the church of their 
unwarrantable pra(ftice in communicating with excommu- 
nicated persons, etc. When they came, they found that 
those of them, who dwell at Newport, had joined them- 
selves to a church there newly constituted, and thereupon 
they refused to hear them as messengers of our church, or 
to receive the church's letters. Whereupon, at their return, 
the elders and most of the church would have cast them 
out, as refusing to hear the church; but, all being not agreed, 
it was deferred." (p. 328.) 

On 24 February, 1639/40, a delegation from the Boston 
church, consisting of Edward Gibbons, William Hibbins and 
John Oliver, left Boston and visited Aquidneck. The 
account of this mission is preserved in The Robert Keayne 
Manuscript, which contains a record of the conversations 
at a church meeting held March 16, 1639/40, upon the return 
of the delegates. 

Brother Hibbins' report was as follows: 

"we thinke it our dutie to give an account to the church 
of gods dealinge with us in our jorny owt ^ in ^ of the 
successe of our bussines when we came to our jornies end, 
at the Hand. The second day of the weeke, we reached the 
first night to mownt wolliston, wheat we were refreshed at 
our Brother Savidges ^ House wherby we were comfortably 
fitted for our jorny, the next day, in wch by the mercy of 
god, y the helpe of yor prayers, god did accompany us with 
seasonable weather, iff in our jorny the first observable 
providence of god that presented itselfe to our vew iff 
especially to my owne observation, wch was in providinge for 
me a comfortable Lodginge, that second night, wch was the 
thinge I most feared becas I never was used to lye with out a 
Bead iff there was one that mett us in the way, that came from 
Cohannet who had a Howse to him selfe 13" he of his owne 

' Savage probably never moved to Aquidneck. 


accord, did give us Leave to Lodg ^ abide in his Howse that 
night, where myselfe especially, i^ all of us had comfortable 
Lodginge for that night, wch was a greate refreshinge to us 
y a deliverance from my fear. 

The next providence of god that fell out in our jorny, was 
some manifestations of gods hand agaynst us, for beinge the 
4th day to passe over a River in a canew, in wch was 8 of 
us our canew did hange upon a tree, to very great daynger, 
the water runinge swiftly away, now my Ignorance was Such 
that I feared no daynger, though those wch had more skill 
sawe we were in iminent daynger, here our god delivered us. 

But now, we cominge safe over the water it pleased god to 
exercise us much in the Losse of our Brother Oliver, whose 
Company we mist ^ did not perceave it, he fallinge unto 
mr. Luttalls company that was a goinge that way to the 
Hand, then they Lost thear way l^ as our hartes was full 
of fear ^ care for our Brother, soe w^as his of us ^ the fear 
increased one both sides, becaus thear fell a greate snowe 
y very hard weather upon it, ^ it was to our greate rejoys- 
inge when we met one another agayne in helth l^ safetie 
accordinge to the good hand of our god, that was upon 
us in our jorny ^ they had bin exposed to so much daynger 
in that could season, for want of a fiar, ^ all meanes to make 
it, had not the Lord beyond expectation provided for them, 
to bring forth a little powder through the shott of the peece, 
now the 5th day we were to goe over another River, where 
we were in great daynger, our Canew fallinge upon a Rocke, 
wch had not some of our brethren more skilfull steped out on 
the Rocke ^ put of the canew our daynger had bin very 
greate, but god brought us safe at Last one the 6th day viz. 
28 day of the 12th month to our greate rejoysinge." 

Brother Oliver reported: 

"Now for the sucess of our jorny to our Brethren at the 
Hand, we acquaynted them with our purpose in Cominge, 
15" desired that they would procure us a meetinge that daye. 


but for reasons in thear owne brest, ^ because of the snowe 
they did not thinke meete then to give us a meetinge but 
the next day they promisd iff did give us a meetinge, 
mr Ashpinwall our Brother Boston/ Brother Sanfoard iff 
others iff we dehvered our message iff the churches Letter, 
wch they Read iff gave us satisfactory Answers. The next 
day we went to Portsmouth where beinge entertayned at our 
Brother Cogshalls Howse we desired them to procure us a 
meetinge, to dehver our message iff the churches Letter, 
But when we expected a meetinge mr Cogshall sent us word 
that by reson of a Civell meetinge that was befor apoynted; 
But for a meetinge they did not know what power one church 
had over another church, iff they denyed our comission iff 
refused to Let our Letter be read, iff they Conceave one 
church hath not power over the members of another church, 
iff doe not thinke they are tide to us by our covenant i^ 
soe were we fayne to take all their Answers by goinge to 
thear severall Howses, mr Hutchison tould us he was more 
nearly tied to his wife than to the church; he thought her 
to be a dear st iff servant of god. 

We came then to mrs Hutchison iff tould her that we 
had a message to doe to her from the Lord i^ from our 

She Answered, There are Lords many iff gods many, 
but I acknowledge but one Lord, which Lord doe you 

We Answered, we came in the Name but of one Lord, iff 
that is god. then sayth she, soe far we agree i^ where we 
doe agree. Let it be set downe Then we tould her we 
had a message to her from the church of ch in Boston She 
replyed, she knew no church but one we tould her: in 
scripture the Ho. Ghost calls them churches She sayd Ch. 
had but one Spouse we tould her he had in some sort as 
many spouses as sts; but for our church she would not 

^ Baulston. 


acknowledge it any church of Ch." (Keayne MS. in 
Prince Soc. Coll. V. 21. p. 393. The original is in 
M. H. S.) / 

In summing up the situation Mr. Cotton said: 
"... For the Answers of our Brethren at the Hand they 
are divers, as for those at Portsmouth that they would not 
reaseve thear message tff comission, except they would 
present it to thear church, wch had bin to have acknowl- 
edged them a Lawfull church, wch they had no comission 
to doe, now these doe wholy refuse to hear the church or to 
hold any submission or subjecflion to the church . . ." and 
"Others doe not refuse to hear the church but Anser as farr 
as thay can goe, only some scruple the covenant, Iff others 
other things but doe not rejedl the church: but doe honor ^ 
esteeme of us as churches of Ch now consider whether, it is 
not meete that we should first wright to them iff Labor to 
satisfi them Iff to take of thear growndes ^ see if thay may 
be redused befor we goe to further prosedinges with them, iff 
I would knowe how farr the wives doe consent or dissent 
from thear Husbands or whether thay be as resolut iff obsti- 
natle peremptory as thay Thear is another sort iff that was 
of such as are excomunicate, now we have gone as far with 
them as I thinke we can goe except thay did showe some 
pertenacy iff obstenacy agaynst ch Je iff then the greate 
censure of anathama marinatha that is for mrs Huchison 
But such as start aside from church censure iff Rules out of 
Ignorance, another corse is to be taken with them to reduse 
them agayne if we can; as mrs Harding iJ mrs dyar, who 
acknowledgeth the churches iff desiar Communion with us 
still And for mr Ashpinwall, he now beinge satisfied of the 
Righteous iff just proceedings of the church in castinge out 
some of our members iff soe refuseth to have any communion 
with them in the thinges of god. 

I pray consider of these things agaynst the next Lords 
day, accordinge to the distributions of the qualetie i^ nature 







































of thear offenses, as those that are necessarily tied thear for 
a home as children to thear parents ^ wives to Husbands, 
and others that stand out of obstency." 

(Keayne, Prince Soc. 21, p. 398.) 

On March 30, 1640, Mr. Wilson made the following state- 
ment in church: 

"Brethren you know the Bussines of the Hand hath bin a 
Longe time propounded, ^ taken by the church into Con- 
sideration y now we should drawe to some Issue ^ deter- 
mination you know the Cases of them thear doe much differ, 
some are under admonition y some under excomunica- 
tion: y some have given satisfadion in part to the church 
iff doe hould themselves still as members of the church y 
doe yet barken to us ^ seeke to give satisfaction iff others 
thear be that doe renounce the power of the church iJ doe 
refuse to hear the church as mr Coddington mr Dyar i^ mr 
Cogshall, the 2 first have been questioned in the church iff 
delt with iff are under Admonition iff have bine soe longe, 
yet this ad: of the church hath bin soe farr from doinge them 
any good, that thay are rather growen worse under the same, 
for mr Coddington beinge delt withall abowt hearinge of 
excomunicate persons prophecy, he was sensable of an evell 
in it, iff sayd he had not before soe well considerd of it, yet 
since he hath not only hearde such by accident as befor. 
But hath himselfe iff our Brother diar iff mr Cogshall have 
gathered themselves into church fellowship, not regardinge 
the Covenant that thay have made with this church, neyther 
have taken our advise iff consent herin, neyther have they 
regarded it, but thay have joyned themselves in fellowship 
with some that are excomunicated wherby thay come to have 
a costant fellowship with them, iff that in a church way, iff 
when we sent messengers of the church to them to admonish 
them iff treate with them about such offences, they w^ear soe 
farr from expressing any sorrow or givinge any satisfadlion 


that thay did alltogether refuse to hear the church. . . ." 
(Keayne, Prince Soc. 21, p. 400.) 

Keayne made the following entry under the date of 20 July, 

"Francis Hutchinson, Hving at the Island, or Portsmouth, 
with his father and mother, so that he cannot frequent the 
church, nor the church discharge her duty in watching over 
him, desired, by a letter to the church, that we would dismiss 
him to God and to the word of his grace, seeing he knew of 
no church there to be dismissed to." (Ellis' "Anne Hutch- 
inson," p. 338.) 

This request was refused. 
On September 26, 1640, 

Brother Button said, "I would express my thoughts. 
I being at the Island this week, they expressed themselves 
to me, that if we do send to them in a church way, they 
would not hear us. Therefore, I think the best way were 
to send private messengers to deal with them first." 

(Keayne, in Ellis' "Anne Hutchinson," p. 345.) 

Into the midst of these many teachers of diverse religious 
views, Ezekiel Holliman, the Baptist, came early in 1640. 
He had in 1637/8 been called before the Massachusetts Court 
for seducing many with his religious teachings, had in 1638 or 
1639 baptized Roger Williams and been baptized by him, 
and had then removed to Aquidneck. He was in 1640 the 
only man known to be a Baptist who was then residing on 
Aquidneck. There has not yet been discovered any evi- 
dence to show that any other of the Aquidneck settlers were 
at that time Baptists or that the Baptist church later 
founded there had then been established. 

Callender in 1738 said: "In the mean Time Mr. John 
Clark, who was a Man of Letters, carried on a publick Wor- 
ship (as Mr. Brewster did at Plymouth) at the first coming, 
till they procured Mr. Lenthal of Weymouth, who was ad- 




mitted a Freeman here August 6, 1640" (p. 62), and "It is 
said, that in 1644, Mr, John Clark, and some others, formed 
a Church, on the Scheme and Principles of the Baptists. 

It is certain that in 1648 there were fifteen Members in 
full Communion." (p. 63.) 

In a footnote Callender gives the names of some of them: 
"The Names of the Males were John Clark, Mark Lukar, 
Nathanael West, Wm. Vahan, Thomas Clark, Joseph Clark, 
John Peckham, John . Thorndon, William Weeden, and 
Samuel Hubbard." 

The earUest contemporary reference to Baptists or Ana- 
baptistry on Aquidneck is that made by Winthrop in the 
summer 1641, the year after Holliman's arrival. (See 
Chap. XII) 

Seal of Samuel Hutchinson 



[163 9- 1 640] 

IN the autumn of 1639 the towns of Portsmouth and New- 
port appointed two commissioners to meet and negotiate 
in regard to a union of the towns, as appears from the record 
of November 25, already quoted. (See Chap. IX) 

No record of these negotiations has been preserved, but the 
fad that Coddington held in himself the title to the island, 
and that the only records of land transfers from him to the 
other settlers were those recorded in the official record book, 
which was in the custody of the Newport Secretary, William 
Dyre, then a strong Coddington man, doubtless exerted an 
appreciable if not a determining influence in inducing the 
Portsmouth men to unite with their Newport "brethren." 
They nevertheless insisted upon annual terms of office, and 
annual eledions, and Coddington seems to have deemed it 
advisable to compromise to this extent. 

The Union was consummated on 12 March, 1639/40 at 
a meeting held at Newport. 

The record of this meeting is: "Att the Generall Courte 
of Eledion held on the twelvth day of the first mo: i640: 
in the Towne of Niewport. 


Mr Willm Coddington Judge Wm Cowlie 

Mr Nicholas Easton Elder Thomas Hazard 

Mr John Coggshall Elder Robert Field 

Mr Willm Brenton Elder Thom: Clarke 


Mr Robert JeofFreys Threar Joseph Clarke 

Mr John Clarke George Gardiner 

Mr Jeremy Clarke Henry Bull 

Mr Wm Foster Robt Stanton 

Mr Sam Willbore 

Guliel Dyre, Secret 

i. Mr William Hutchinson Mr Wm Balston Mr John 
Sanford John Porter Adam Mott, Wm Freeborne John 
Walker Philip Sherman Richard Carder y Randall Holden 
presenting of themselves and desiring to be Reunited to this 
Body are readily Imbraced by us. 

2. It is Agreed by this Bodie united that if ther shall be 
anie prson found meett for the service of the same, in eyther 
plantation, If ther be no just exception against him, upon 
his orderlie presentation, he shall be Received as a freeman 

3. Itt is Agreed thatt Mr Samuell Hutchinson, Thomas 
Emons, Job Hawkins Richard Awards, Sampson Shatton 
Toby Knight John Roome And George Parker are Received 
as freemen of this Bodye fully to enjoy the priviledges 
belonging therunto. 

4. It is ordered that the Cheife Magistrate of the Island 
shall be Called Governour and the next, Deputie Governour 
and the Rest of the Magistrates Assistants, and this to stand 
for a decree. 

5. It is Agreed that the Governor and two Assistants shall 
be chosen in one Towne, iff the Dept Governor and two other 
assistants in the other Towne. 

6. It is ordered that the Plantation at the other End of 
the Ysland shall be called Portsmouth. 

7. By Eledion 

Mr Wm: Coddington is chosen Governor for the yeare or till 
a new be chosen Mr Wm: Brenton is chosen Dept Governor 
for the yeare or till a new be chosen 


Mr Nich: Easton is chosen Assistant for this yeare or till a 
new be chosen 

Mr John Coggeshall is chosen Assistant for this yeare or 
till a new be chosen 

Mr Wm: Hutchinson is chosen Assistant for this yeare or 
till a new be chosen 

Mr John Porter is chosen Assistant for this yeare or till 
a new be chosen 

Mr Robt: Jeoffreys | are chosen Threars for ths yeare or 

Mr Wm: Balston J till new be chosen 

Wm Dyre is chosen Secretary for this yeare or till a new 
be chosen 

Mr Jeremy Clarke is chosen Constable of Niewport for this 
yeare or till a new be chosen 

Mr Samfford is chosen Constable of Portsmouth for this 
yeare or till a new be chosen 

Henry Bull is chosen Sarjeant Attendant for this yeare or 
till a new one be chosen 

8 It is Agreed and ordered that the Governour iff Assist- 
ants are invested with the offices of the Justices of the Peace 
according to the Law. 

9 It is ordered that to the number of five men shall be 
chosen to lay out the Lands belonging to the Towne of 
Portsmouth, and three for Nieuport 

10 By order of Court, John SanmfFord Adam Mott 
Thomas Spicer Richard Burden ^ Philip Sherman is chosen 
to the Service of laying out the Lands for the Towne of 

ii By order of Courte Mr John Coggshall, Mr Robert 
Jeoffreys and Mr. Jeremie Clarke shall lay out the Re- 
mainder of the Lands of the Towne of Nieuport. 
12 It is ordered that Libertie is granted for the major parte 
of the freemen of Each Towne to select Certaine men from 
Among them selves to proportion forth to Each man his 
propriety of land, And than having it Layd forth orderly, 


It shall be Recorded at the Generall Courte." (I. R. 
p. 27.) 

It would appear from this record that Brenton must have 
continued to reside at Portsmouth, although continuing in 
office as an Elder in the Newport government. 

It will be noted that Secretary Dyre cleverly arranged the 
records so that from them the Newport government should 
appear to be the only legitimate successor of the origmal 
"compad:" government. The titles of the officers were 
changed, and more officers created. The political power, 
however, was still clearly and firmly in Coddington's hands. 
It is noticeable too that Gorton did not take part in this 
union although the Hutchinsons did. This might seem to 
point to an estrangement between Gorton and Mrs. Hutchin- 
son. It seems quite probable that some such estrangement 
took place over the political management of Pocasset soon 
after the "coup d'etat" and that this may have influenced 
the Hutchinsons toward a reapproachment with Codding- 
ton, whose political genius could scarcely fail to appreciate 
and utilize to the utmost such developments. 

"At the Generall Courte Held on the 

6th of May i64o: att 


13 Whereas it was desired that all the orders ^ Lawes 
formerlie Recorded in this Booke of State shuld be openlie 
read prused ^ Examined, by this present Court assembled be 
it knowen therfor that it hath been so done, And such as 
were disallowed are Repealed ^ so noted in the margent y 
the Rest are Ratified, iff stand in full force though the Tittle 
of the magistrates be Altered. 

14 In Regard of the many Incursions our Island is subjedl 
unto, y tht an Alarum be necessary for the safe securing 
therof, be itt therfor Enabled that in each plantation ther 
bee this forme dulie observed, That as soone as notice is 


given of any probable Incursion that then forthwth Three 
musketts be distin(5lly discharged, ^ the drum or drummes 
incessently to beat an Alarum; i^ tht forthwith ev man 
bearing Armes shall Repair to the Coullers wch shall be 
Loddged at the Chief Magistrates house in each Plantation 
as he will answer it as his prill. 

15 It is ordered that the Governor wth the Assistants shall 
write to Plymouth about their Tittle of the maine Land grass 
i6 It is ordered that all such who shall have a houslott 
granted unto them wthin any of our Townes shall build A 
house theron wthin a yeare after the grant Therof or else 
it shall be forfeitted to the Townes use Repealed 

iy It is ordered that Commission be direcfted to the Threars to 
make demaunds of all such monies as is due to the Treasury for 
the Lands assigned forth to prticular men And to make Re- 
turne of all such who shall be therin remiss at the next prtic- 
ular Corte, who are to bee ordered therby according to Law. 
is It is ordered That the prticular Courts consisting of 
magistrates y Jurors shall be holden on the first Tuesday of 
ev moneth iff one Court to be held at Nieuport the other at 
Portsmouth i^ that the sayd Court shall have full powre to 
Judge and determine all such cases and adlions as shall bee 
presented." (I. R. p. 28.) 

"At the Generall Court Held att 

Portsmouth on the 6° of Aug 


19 By the Generall Consent of this Court Mr Robt: Lenthall 
y Thomas Cornill, y Ralph Cowland are admitted freemen 
of this Body PoUtike fully to enjoy the priviledges belonging 

20 It is Agreed iff ordered thatt all men allowed iff assigned 
to beare Armes shall make their prsonal appearance Com- 
pletely Armed wth muskett iff all its furniture or pike wth 
its furniture to attend their coulers by Eight of the Clock 


in the morning, at the second beat of the drum on such 
dayes as they are appointed to Traine. And further it is 
ordered, that Eight severall times in the yeare the Bands of 
Each plantacon shall openhe in the field be exercised ^ 
disciplined by their Commanders tff officers. And further 
it is ordered that ther shall be two Generall Musters in the 
yeare the one to be disciplined at Nuport the other at Ports- 
mouth and that if any shall faile to make their prsonal ap- 
pearance as aforsaid according to time iff place aforsd he 
shall forfeitt iff pay the sum of 5^ into the hands of the 
Clark of the Band. And further it is ordered, iff by this 
prsent authority established that if any prson shall Come to 
the sd Training or Generall Muster defecflive in his Armes or 
furniture equivolent he shall pay forthwth the sum of I2d, 
and further it is ordered, that when the Generall Muster 
shall be held at the one Towne, ther shall be a sufficient 
Guard sett iff Left at the other Towne wth the Constable or 
his deputy. And further it is ordered that the Commanders 
Vidgt cheeftaine iff Leiutent shall appoint the dayes iff 
times of their sd meetings. And further it is ordered tht all 
men who shall Come iff Remaine the space of Twentie dayes 
on the Island, he shall be Liable to the injunctions of this 
order, prvided, that if eyther heardsmen or Lighter men 
bee otherwayes detained upon their necessary Imploymnts, 
they shall be exempted, paying only 2s 6d for tht day into 
the hands of the Clarke, And further be it established that 
the two Cheif Officers of each Towne, to witt: the on of the 
Comonweal, the other of the Band, iff these two officers 
upo the exhibicon of the Complaint, by the Clark (wch shall 
be wthin three dayes after the faults committed), shall 
Judg iff determine of the Reasons of their excuses who upo 
the hearing therof shall determine whether ev such prson 
shall pay 5^ or 2s 6d, or nothing. And further it is ordered 
that Libertie be granted to farmes or farmers to leave on 
man at the sd farme he paying the suiii of 2s 6d into the 


hands of the Clarke. And further it is ordered that the 
Clark of Each Band shall Receive the monies off any man 
to provide ^ make supply of such things as he shall stand 
in need of; during whh time after the deliverie of the sd 
mony, he shall be excused for his defed:s in his armes, but 
if the mony be not dd then to be Liable to the injunctions 
herin contained provided, also tht the Clark of each Band 
shall hereby be authorized to ask receive or destraine for 
all such fines or forfeitures as by any is made i^ that the 
sd sum of monies so Levied shall be imployed to the use 
y service of the Band. 

2i. It is ordered that the Threary shall provide iff 
fitt up on Drum Collers Iff halberds for the Band of Ports- 

22. It is ordered thatt Wm. Dyre shall be adjoyned wth 
the rest in Mr. Jeoffrey's Roome for the Laying outt of 
the Lands of Nuport 

23 It is further ordered, that each Towne shall have a 
joynt y an equall supply of the money in the Threary for 
the necessary uses of the same; iff that the Governor iff one 
assistant of one Towne, iff the Dept Governor iff one assist- 
ant in the other shall give a warrant according to the de- 
terminacon off the major vote of the Townsmen for the same 
unto the Threasr wh shall be his discharge: and it is further 
ordered that at the Issue of the Threasurers that now bee, 
a due iff True account of all Bills, iff monies, received or 
dispended shall be presented by the Threasurer of each 
Towne, And the chardges dispended shall be equally 
ballanced iff each Towne to beare its true proportion. And 
likewise wtt hath beene expended out of the whole shall be 
borne by the whole; iff what orders were formerly made 
being repugnant to this are hereby Nullified. 

24 It is ordered that Mr Coggeshall iff Mr. Balsto Threas- 
urers shall take up Mr Hutchinson his accounts iff pruse it 
iff exhibite it at the next Generall Courte. 


25 It is ordered that each Towne shall have the Tran- 
sadlion of the affaires that shall fall wthin their owne Towne, 
And that the magistrats of each Towne shall have Libertie 
to call a Court ev first Tewsday in the moneth at Nuport, Iff 
every first Thursday in the moneth at Portsmouth wherein 
actions may be entered and Juries impanelld i^ Causes 
Tryed provided that it be not in the matter of Life iff Limb 
and that if so be a Plaintiff hath Commenced his suitt iff 
the defendant cast, he shall have libertie to make his appeale 
to the Qter Sessions wch are to be held upo the foure Qter 
dayes, And the two Parlimentarie (or Gnerall) Courts to 
bee held on the Wensday after the 12 of march, wth what 
time is requisitt therunto, iff the other the first Wensday 
after the \2 of od:ober wth what time is requisite therunto, 
wch Courts are equally to be kept at the two townes, 
and what former orders are herto Repugnant are hereby 

Explicacon for the Better understanding of the terme of 
the foure Qter dayes. It was at the next Sessions of Court 
Generall determined that the Qter Sessions Courts shuld 
be held the Tewsdays (or days) before the Two Generall 
Courts, iff the other two to fall, the one the first Tewsday 
in July, iff the other the first Tewsday in January." (I. R^ 
P- 30.) 

"Certaine Propositions made interchangably on the 
7° of July i640. 


Mr. Willm Coddington, Governr wth the rest of the Assist- 
ants, iff Miantonomie Sachem of Narraganset wth the 
rest of the Sachems and agreed upon. 

That no Indian whatever under his Jurisdid:ion shall 
eyther Winter or Summer kindle or cause to be kindled 
any fiers upon or Lands, but such as they shall Put forth 
immediatly againe upon their departure; Provided that no 


hurt or dammage be done therby upon or after the kindhng 
of the said fire; or if it so fall out, that hurt or dammage 
be done by their kindhng of fire, then the dammag to be 
adjudged, and they to be tryed by our Law. 

That in Lieu of a Boore tht belonged to the Island, killed 
by an Indian, the sd Indian shall Pay io fadome of beads at 
Harvest next. 

That no Trapp or Engine be sett by them upon the 
Island, to take or stroye the deare or other cattle theron. 

That if any Indian shall be unruly or will not depart or 
howses whn they are bidden they are to carry them to the 
Governr or other magistrat,^ they shall be Punished accord- 
ing to their demeritt. And further that for any common or 
small crime he shall receive his Punishmt according to Law; 
t^ for any matters of greater weight exceeding the valew of 
io fadome of beads then miantonomy is to be sent for, who 
is to come ^ see the Tryall, but if it be a Sachem that hath 
offended though in smaller matters then he is also to be 
sent for i^ to see his Tryall ^ Judgmt who hath Promised 
to come. 

That no Indian shall take any Cannew from the English 
neyther from their Boatside or shoreside, ^ the like not to 
be done to them. 

That upon their trading and bargaining having agreed they 
shall not revoke the sd bargaine or take their goods away 
by force, i^ that they shall not be Idleing about nor resort 
to or howses, but for trade message or in their Jour-neys. 

Ratified at 1 These two leaves were torne out by the 

Generall Courte ! G. Cort march the i6th, 1641 15" these 
August 6° I two forgoing Containe the same orders 

1640 j being again written." (I. R. p. 14.) 

"At the Generall Courte 
held on the 14° of 
the 7° i640. 


26 It is agreed that Mr. Brace, Jeremy Gold, Jeoffrey 
Champlin, John Anthony, John Hicks, James Rogers, H. 
Bishop iff Marmaduke ward are admitted as Freeman of 
this Body Pohticke to enjoy the priviledges throfF 

27 It is agreed ^ ordered by the unanimous consent of this 
Court that a Line of divisio be drawen between the Townes 
of Nuport y Portsmouth as the bounds of the Lands of 
each Towne, vidgt. The sd Line to begin halfe a mile 
beyond the River commonhe cal'd Sachuis River, being the 
River that Hes next beyond Mr. Brentons Land on the South 
east sid of the Island Towards Portsmouth and so on in a 
streight Line to Runn to the nearest part of the Brooke 
to the hunting wiggwamm now standing in the highway 
between the two Towns ^ so by that Line to the Sea on 
the North side of the Island, wch Line shall be iff is the 
Bounds between the Two Townes, ^ to be sett out by 
marked Trees; and tht Mr Easton iff Mr Porter, iff Mr 
JeofFreys and Mr. Samfford shall Lay out this Line by the 
first of November ensuing. And further it is ordered that 
whereas ther was 900 acres of Land (vidg't, To Mr Wm 
Hutchinson 400, iff to Mr Samford 200, iff to Mr Samuell 
Hutchinson 200, ijf to Francis Hutchinson ioo) Layd forth 
unto them on this side of the sd River, called Sachuis River 
next unto Nuport, shall be iff is still graunted to them iff 
their posterity, as their right iff propriety: Provided they 
hold it as from the Towne of Nuport; Provided also that this 
graunt do no wayes damnific the Land formerly Graunted 
to the accommodation of Mr Brentons farme; Provided 
also that if so be the Said Parties befor mentioned shall 
refuse their or any off their accommodations, before 
premised in that place then the sd Lande or Lands 
shall Returne to the use iff disposall of the said Towne of 

28 It IS ordered that wheras ther was an order formerlie 
made for five men to Lay out the Lands for the Towne of 


Portsmouth, iff upo Complaint made for their Negled being 
so many; be it now estabhshed that Three of them, vidgt 
Mr Samford, Adam Mott iff Richard Burden shall Lay out 
the said Lands according to the Proportions granted forth 
by the Towne. 

29 It was further ordered that Two Barrels of Gunn 
Poulder be alway readie in the Threary of each Towne, wth 
Bulletts iff match; and that Provision be forthwith hereof 
made by the Threars; And that the Threasurers make 
demaund of all such moneys as is due; and if any negled: the 
Payment, then to take warrants from the Magistrats to the 
Constable to destraine for the Same; iff that also the Threas- 
urers shall provide Thirtie two pikes to lye by alway in 
readiness in the magazines of each Towne. 

30 It is ordered that the Secretary shall only attend the 
two General Courts, iff the foure Quarter Sessions Courts, 
unless he be desired iff shall have 3^ a day for his attendance 

31 It is ordered that the Governor shall writt to the 
Governor of the Bay that they would Communicate their 
Councells concerning their Agitations wth the Indians. 

Here endeth the Ad:s iff Orders made by 
the Bodye in the yeare 

Being one iff thirty in 

W: Dyre Secrety " 

Under date of Odlober (Mo. 8) 1640, Winthrop wrote: 
"We received a letter at the general court from the 
magistrates of Conne(5licut and New Haven and of Aquiday, 
wherein they declared their dislike of such as would have the 
Indians rooted out, as being of the cursed race of Ham, and 
their desire of our mutual accord in seeking to gain them by 
justice and kindness, and withal to watch over them to 


prevent any danger by them, etc. We returned answer of 
our consent with them in all things propounded, only we 
refused to include those of Aquiday in our answer, or to 
have any treaty with them." (p. 20) 

This refers to the following resolution of the General 
Court passed Ocftober 7, 1640: 

"It is ordered, that the letter lately sent to the Governor 
by Mr Eaton, Mr Hopkins, Mr Haynes, Mr. Coddington, 
y Mr Brenton, but concerning also the Generall Courte, 
shalbee thus answered by the Governor; that the Court doth 
assent to all the prpositions layde downe in the aforesaid 
letter, but that the answere shalbee dire(5led to Mr Eaton, 
Mr Hopkins, iff Mr Haynes, onely excluding Mr Coddington 
& Mr Brenton, as men not to bee capitulated wth all by us, 
either for themselues or the people of the iland where they 
inhabite, as their case standeth." (Mass. Col. Rec. i, 290, 

pr. 305-) 

Robert Lenthal accompanied the mission from the Boston 
Church on part of their journey to Newport in March 
1639/40. If this was the occasion of Lenthal's removal 
from Weymouth to Newport, then it follows that Lechford 
must have visited Newport after this date, and before 
20 August 1640, when Lenthal became schoolmaster (Cf 
Chap. XI). Lenthal was admitted Freeman at Newport 
on Aug. 6, 1640 (see p. 98). 

Callender adds: 

"And August 20, Mr. Lenthal, was by Vote called to keep 
a publick School for the learning of Youth, and for his 
Encouragement there was granted to him and his Heirs one 
hundred Acres of Land, and four more for an House-Lot; 
it was also voted, 'that one hundred Acres should be laid 
forth, and appropriated for a School, for encouragement of 
the poorer Sort, to train up their Youth in Learning, and 
Mr. Robert Lenthal while he continues to teach School, is to 
have the Benefit thereof.'" (p. 62) Callender would seem 


to have had access to records which have since disappeared. 
Ihis first Rhode Island school did not continue very long 
for Lenthal returned to England. 

Seal of John Coggeshall 


A GENERAL COURT for the Island was opened at 
Portsmouthon 16 March i64i,the records of which are: 

"The Generall Court of Eledion began ^ held at Porths- 
mouth, from the 16° of March to the 19° of the same mo 

I. It was ordered ^ agreed before the Eledlion, that an 
ingagemt by oath shuld be taken of all the officers of this 
Body now to be Elected as Likewise for the time to Come; 
the ingagement wch the severall officers of the State shall 
give is this; To the execution of this office I judge myself 
bound before God to walck faithfully ^ this I profess in the 
presence of God. 

By Eledion. 

2 Mr Wm Coddington is chosen Governor for on whole 
yeare or till a new be chosen. 

Mr Wm Brenton is chosen Dept Governr for on whole 
yeare or i^c 

Mr John Coggeshall is chosen Assistant for on whole 
yeare or iffc 

Mr Robt Harding is chosen Assistant for on whole yeare 
or iffc 

Mr Wm Balston is chosen Assist ^ Threar for on whole 
yeare or iffc 

Mr John Porter is chosen Assistant for on whole yeare 
or ^c 

Wm Dyre is chosen Secretarie for on whole yeare or iffc 

is chosen Sargeant Attendants. 


Mr Robt JeoflFreys is chosen Threat for on whole yeare 

or iffc 

Thomas Gorton 

Henry Bull 

Thomas Cornill I [ofPortsmth 

y \ is chosen Constable \ 

Henry Bishop j [ofNuport J 

for one whole yeare or till a new be chosen. 

3. It is ordered i^ unanimously agreed upon that the 
Governmt wch this Bodie Politick doth attend unto in this 
Island y the Jurisdiction therof in favour of our Prince is a 
Democracie or Popular Governmt that is to say It is in the 
Powre of the Body of freemen orderly assembled or major 
Part of them to make or Constitute Just Lawes by wch they 
will be regulated iff to depute from among themselves such 
ministers as shall see them faithfully executed between 
man ^ man. 

4 It was furthur ordered by the Authority of this Present 
Court, that none bee accounted a Delinquent for the Doc- 
trine: Provided it be not diredlly repugnant to the Governmt 
or Lawes established. 

5 It is futher ordered, that all such who shall kill a fox 
shall have 6s 8d for his Paines duly Paid unto him by the 
Threar of the Towne in wch bounds it was killed: Pro- 
vided, that he bring the head therof to the said Threasurer; 
y this order shall be of sufficient Authority to the Threar to 
Pay y discharge the sd summ. 

6 It is futher ordered tht all men who shall kill any 
Deare (except it to be upon his owne Proper lands) shall 
bring ^ deliver half the said Deare into the Threarie or Pay 
fortie shillings; Iff further it is ordered that the Governor 
tff Dep Governr shall have Authority to give forth a warrent 
to some one deputed of each Towne to kill some against the 


Court times for the Countries use, who shall by his warrent 
have Libertie to kill wher ever he find; Provided it be not 
whin any man's inclosure, iff to be Paid by the Threarie: 
Provided also that no Indian shall be suffered to kill or 
destroy at any time or any wher. 

7 It is ordered from henceforth that the Quarter Session 
Courts shall alway be kept the first, the first Tewsday in 
march; the 2d the first Tewsday in Junn; the 3d, the first 
Tewsday in September; the Last the first Tewsday in 

8 It is ordered that Eight Gunns iff their furniture, wth 
two corsletts now in the hands of Mr Willbore, shall be taken 
of by the Threarie Jointlie, as part of Satisfad:ion for what 
debts from him is dew therto: and that the said Armes be 
Equally devided to each Towne 

9 It is ordered that the Deptie Govr iff Mr Willbore iff 
Mr Coggshall, iff Mr Jeremy Clark shall be joyned in Comis- 
sion wth the Two Treasurers that now bee to Examine the 
Treasurie iff to even the Accounts, iff then to Present them 
so redified to the next Generall Court and wtt uneveness 
there is found to bee the on Treasurer shall make Paymt 
to the other Treasurer wthin twentie dayes after the Period 
of their Comission, the Limitts wh is set for the performance 
of this shall be three weeks from the date hereof. 

10 It is ordered, that Mr Porter Mr Balston Mr Easton iff 
Mr Jeoffreys shall runn the Line between the two Towns 
wthin twentie dayes after the date hereof or else shall 
forfeit a mark a peece, iff Performing it wthin the 
(time or) tearme they shall have a mark a Peece for their 

II. It is ordered that each towne shall Provide a Town 
book wherin they shall record the Evidences of the Lands 
by them Impropriated; and shall also have Powre to give 
forth a Coppie therof, wch shall be a cleare Evidence for 
them iff theirs to whom it is so granted. 


12. It is ordered that the officers of Justices of Peace 
is Confirmed to the magistrats. 

13. It is ordered that no fiers shall be kindled by any 
whatsoev to runn at randome, eyther in Meddows or woods 
but whatt by him that so kindled it shall forthwth be putt 
out, that itt damnifie none, And that if dammage shall 
accrew, satisfadlion to the utmost shall be awarded. 

14. It is ordered that A Booke shall be Provided wherin 
the Secrety shall writt all such Laws and Ads, as are made 
y Constituted by the Body, to be left Alway in that Towne 
wher the said Secretarie is not resident; And also that 
Coppies of such Adls as shall be made now or hereafter at the 
Generall Courts concerning necessary uses ^ ordinances 
to be observed shall be fixed upon some Publik Place wher 
all men may see ^ take notice of thm; or that coppies 
therof be given to the clerks of the band, who shall read 
thm at the head of the companie. 

15. It is ordered that A Manuall Seale shall be Provided 
for the State, iff that the Signett or Engraveur thereof 
shall be a sheafe of Arrow^es bound up and in the Liess or 
Bond this motto indented Amor vincett omnia. 

16 It is ordered that Ingagemt shall be taken by the 
Justices of the Peace in their Qter Sessions of all men or 
youth above fiveteen yeares of Age, eyther by the oth of 
Fidelity or some other strong cognizance. 

17 It is ordered, that a Line be drawen and a way be 
cleared between the townes of Nuport and Portsmouth, by 
removing of the wood iff mowing itt; that drift cattle may 
sufficiently Pass; and for the performance therof Capt 
Morris, of the one towne iff Mr Jeoffreys of the other is 
appointed to draw the Line, iff to be Paid therfore, and the 
Townes to Perform the rest. 

18. It is ordered that the Traine Bands shall choose 
among the freemen, on or more such as shall be for their 
commanders iff Present them to the Towne. The major 

Original window is in museum of Rhode Island Historical Society. 


vote of the Towne, by the Authoritie of this Courte, shall 
have the Negative voice for the Estabblishment of them, 
y shall order their Powre till the next Generall Courte. 

19. It is ordered that the major part of the Courts, being 
Lawfullie assembled at the Place and houre appointed, shall 
have full Powre to transac5l the businesses that shall be 
Presented; (Provided, it be the major pt of the body intire, 
if it be the generall Courte be present) or the major pt of 
the magistrats wth the jury in the inferior Courts iff that such 
adls Concluded iff Issued be of as full authority as if ther 
were all present. Provided, ther bee due iff seasonable no- 
tice given of every such Court. 

The Tenure of the Lands of Aquethneck. 

20. It is ordered Established and Decreed, unanimouslie, 
that all men's Prorietes In their Lands of the Island, and 
the Jurisdi(5lion therof shall be such, and soe free, that 
neyther the State nor any Person or Persons shall intrud into 
it, or molest him in itt, to deprive him of any thing whatso- 
ever is or shall be wthin that or any the bounds theroff, and 
that this Tenure and Propriety of his therin shall be con- 
tinued to him or his, or to whomsoever hee shall assigne it 
for Ever." (I. R. p. 37.) Captions for each sedlion were 
written in the margins. 

In regard to the religious contentions at Aquidneck in 
1641 Winthrop wrote: 

"Mrs. Hutchinson and those of Aquiday island broached 
new heresies every year. Divers of them turned professed 
anabaptists, and would not wear any arms, and denied all 
magistracy among christians, and maintained that there 
were no churches since those founded by the apostles and 
evangelists, nor could any be, nor any pastors ordained, nor 
seals administered but by such, and that the church was to 
want these all the time she continued in the wilderness, as 
yet she was . . . 


Other troubles arose in the island by reason of one Nicholas 
Easton a tanner, a man very bold though ignorant. He 
using to teach at Newport, where Mr. Coddington their gov- 
ernour lived, maintained that man hath no power or will in 
himself, but as he is ad:ed by God, and that seeing God filled 
all things, nothing could be or move but for him, and so he 
must needs be the author of sin, etc., and that a christian is 
united to the essence of God. Being showed what blas- 
phemous consequences would follow hereupon, they pro- 
fessed to abhor the consequences, but still defended the 
propositions, which discovered their ignorance, not appre- 
hending how God could make a creature as it were in him- 
self, and yet no part of his essence, as we see by familiar 
instances; the Hght is in the air, and in every part of it, 
yet it is not air, but a distincfl thing from it. 

There joined with Nicholas Easton Mr. Coddington, 
Mr. Coggeshall, and some others, but their minister, Mr. 
Clark, and Mr. Lenthall, and Mr. Harding, and some others 
dissented and publicly opposed, whereby it grew to such 
heat of contention, that it made a schism among them." 
(v. 2 p. 41.) 

"The Orders iff Lawes 
made the Generall Courte held 
att Newport, the 17° of Septem Ano i64i. 

21 Whereas ther was certain Records to witt Eleven in 
number made iff entered into this Booke of State wch 
records are since found to be imperfed: by wanting of that 
wch was intended both for bounds quantitie iff Tenure; It 
is therfore ordered that it shall be Lawfull to transcribe i^ 
redlifie the said Records according to the Perfed: rule i^ 
orders in that case Provided. 

The order made for the restraint of killing deare the last 
Court is repeald. 

22 It is ordered iff agreed that no English man or other 


shall sett any Trapps for deare upon the Island under the 
paine of forfeiting five pounds, except it be wthin his owne 
inclosed grownds. 

23 It is also ordered that no Indian shall fall or Peel any 
trees upon the Islands and that if any be found so doing or 
carrying of Bark (so Peeled upon the Islands) away; It 
shall be Lawfull for all that so finds them to bring or cause 
to be brought the Parties so offending before the magistrats, 
who shall order and Punish them according to the Law. 

24 Wheras ther was difference in the understanding of 
that order made the Last Court concerning the Elecftion of 
military Commanders it was explained by the authority 
of this Courte, vidg't. That the freemen of the Towne 
according to order shall confirme one to each office, out of 
all such as the whole Traine Band did Present; and this to 
stand as the true meaning of that clause in tht order. 

25 It is ordered that Mr Jeffrey's shall draw the Line 
between the Townes by the Last of November next who 
shall have five shillings a day for the time he spends att 
home about it and ten shillings a day wn he Lies abroad, 
upon paine of forfeiting 5 li if nott done; also those that shall 
helpe him shall have ^s per diem, and the chardge to be 
Equally borne by the Townes. 

26 It is ordered that Mr Robt Jeoffreys shall be author- 
ized to exercise the funcftion of chirurgerie. 

27 It is ordered that every half yeare ther shall bee 3 
men chosen out of each Towne to view the swine, that shall 
be kill'd by any Person or Persons wthin the Limitts of the 
said Towne: And that he that doth or shall kill any swine, ^ 
not call on or more of the said men to veiw y see the said 
swine so kill'd or to be kill'd, he shall forfeitt five and also 
it is ordered that every Inhabitant or Person keeping swine 
shall wthin on month after the end of this court bring in their 
earmarke wch they have or do usually give, y ther to be 
kept in the Towne Records upon paine of forfeiting 6s 8d; 


and those that have the Seigniority of the marke shall keep 
it, and others that have given the same shall alter the said 
marke upon notice given to em; and it is also ordered that 
the same order in all Points shall be observed for Goates; and 
also that each Towne shall have a Coppy of each others 

28 It is ordered and received that the Ingagemt that 
already was given by the Freemen was ^ is of the force as 
tht oath is wch is authorized to be administred to the In- 
habitants wh oath Nicholas Easton Robt JeofFreys ^ Wm 
Dyre did take in Presence of the Court. 

29 It is ordered that if any Person or Persons on the 
Island, whether Freeman or Inhabitant shall by any meanes 
open or Covert endeavour to bring in any other Powre than 
wt is now here Established (except it be from our Prince by 
Lawfull Commission) shall be accounted a delequent under 
the head of Perjurie. 

30 It is ordered that that Law of the Last Court made 
concerning Libtie of Conscience in point of Dodlrine is 

31 It is ordered That Order concerning trainings made at 
Portsmth aug: 6, i640, shal be dulie observed and kept in all 
Points efFedlually, excepting the Powre i^ all Particles 
therof wh is given to the Commanders therin; also bee 
excepted the two Generall musters, and also bee excepted 
the half crowne paying for such as are necessarily detained. 
And be it further ordered that the Townes shall order the 
Powre of the officers of their severall Bands from time to 

32 It is ordered that each Towne shall choose a comitte 
to Examine the accounts of each Towne Interchangeably 
and to exhibitt them wholie at the next General Courts. 

33 It is ordered that the Indian Corne shall goe at 4/ a 
bushell between man i^ man in all Paymts for debts made 
from this day forward Provided it bee Merchandable. 


34 The Court doth order ^ Proclayme a Generall Pardon 
of all offences that have been Presented to and given in this 
Present Session. 

35 According to an order of Court made in March last 
wherin a comitte was appointed to examine i^ redlefie the 
Threaries accounts, wh accordingly they have done and also 
exhibiting this follovi^ing ans: in vv^ritting. 

Memorandum Ther remains due from the Threasury of 
Portsmo to the Threasury of Nuport the summ of on hundred 
Pounds and Eleven li three shillings ^ four pence as ap- 
peareth by the severall prticulars; and in case that Mr Dyre 
y Henry Bulls bills upon Portsmouth be more then on 
Nuport then the Surplus to be discounted ^ in case any 
thing be omitted by eyther Threasury then upon demand 
allowance to be made of the on halfe. 


William Brenton 
John Coggeshall 
Wm Baulston ^ 
Robt JeofFeries." (I. R. p. 39-) 

Seal used by Mary Sweet Holliman 


WE have for Aquidneck several lists of the early 
residents before 1647: the original signers of the 
compad:, the "inhabitants" admitted up to May 3, 1638, 
the "inhabitants" of Portsmouth in 1639, the "inhabitants" 
admitted at Newport after May 20, 1638, and the list of 
qualified Freemen in 1641. 

There were three classes of persons on Aquidneck; viz. 
"Freeman," who could vote and hold office in the Aquid- 
neck government (i.e. the government of the two towns); 
"Inhabitants," apparently admitted by each town, who 
had certain rights, at first that of land owning, and later that 
of jury service and perhaps that of voting and office-holding 
in their own towns; and a third class that for lack of a con- 
temporary name we might call "temporary residents." 
Those who signed the compadl were ipso fadlo Freemen, and 
all of them with the exception of William Aspinwall, who 
was suspedled of sedition in 1638 and probably disenfran- 
chised, are listed as Freemen in 1641. Carder, Holden, 
Shotton, Potter, Briggs, and Lenthall were subsequently 
disenfranchised. Freemen were admitted at various meet- 
ings from 1638 to 1640, and in every case the men so ad- 
mitted are named in the list of 1641, with the exception 
of Richard Dummer, who had moved away to Massa- 

Inhabitants were admitted at the meeting of December 7, 
1638, but the names of inhabitants admitted later do not 
seem to have been entered with the mmutes of the meetings. 


When Pocasset and Newport separated, and Pocasset 
reorganized as Portsmouth, the new compacfl was signed by 
the "inhabitants" of Portsmouth. Every one of these 
signers, except Job Hawkins, who is Hsted as Freeman in 
1641, is either one of the signers of the first compacft or is 
named in the hst of "inhabitants" admitted before May, 
1638. Some of the men named in the two hsts of inhabit- 
ants are also named as Freemen in 1641, showing their ad- 
vance in rank. 

The hsts not printed in the previous pages follow: 
"A Catalogue of such [persons] who by the Generall 
Consent of the Company [were] admitted to be Inhabitants 
of the Is[land] now Called Aqueedneck, having submitted 
themselves to the Governement that is or shall be Estab- 
lished, according to the word of God: therin. 

3d month 20th 

1638 Mr. Samuel Hutchinson, James Davis. 

Thomas Emons: George Parker. 

Richard Awards: Erasmus Bullock, 

Edward Willcocks: 2° ii° George Cleer. 

Thomas Clarke. 24° :ii° Thomas Hazard. 

John Johnson. William Cowlie, 

William Hall. Jeffery Champlin, 

John Briggs: Richard Sarle, 

George Gardiner: John Sloff, 

20th: 3d: William Withrington: Thomas Beeder. 

20th :4th Mr. Sammuell Gorton: John Tripp. 

John Wickes. Osamond Doutch: 

Ralph Earle: John Marshall: 

27th :4th Nicholas Browne. Robert Stanton 

Richard Burden. Joseph Clarke; 

Richard Maxon. Robert Carr. 

i6th: 5th Mr. Nicholas Esson. George Layton. 

Thomas Spicer: John Arnold. 




Robert Potter. 

Wm. Heavens. 

Nathaniell Potter 

Thomas Layton. 

William Nedam 

Edward Poole. 

Sampson Shatton 

Mathew Sutherland 

Adom Mott 

John Mott 

Mr. Robert JefFeryes 

Thomas Hitt 

James Tarr 

John Rome. 

Robert Gilham, 

Jeremy Clarke. 

12° 9° 

Nicholas Davis. 
Wm. Baker. 

16° 9° 

John More. 

6° 10° 

Anthony Pain 
George Potter. 
Wm. Richardson. 

27: loth 

Wm. Quick. 

Inhabitants Admitted at"^ the 
the 1° of the 3d, i638. 

Marmeduke Ward, 
Robert Feild 
Thomas Stafford 
Job Tyler 
Thomas Savorie 
Hugh Durdall 
William Baker 
John Layton 
Mr. Will Foster. 
John Hall 
Tobye Knight 
John Peckum 
Michell Williamson, 

Towne of Nieu-Port since 

Nicholas Cotterell, 
John Vaughan 
John Smith 
John Merchant 
Jeremy Gold 
Enoch Hunt 
Nathaniell Adams 
Samuell Allen, 
George Allen, 
Ralph Allen 
Mr. Thomas Burton, 
Henry Bishop 
John Hicks 




Mr Robt Lintell Edward Browce 

Richard Smith Mathew Gridell." 

John Smith (I. R. 41-42) 

James Rogers 

Wm. Parker. 

John Grinman 

Edward Rero, 

John Macunmore 

Robert Root 

Ezekiah Meritt 

James Burt 

John Bartlett 

Edward [Andrews] 

Sampson Salter, 

"The Court Roll off Freemen wth the officers as they were 
Elected on the 1 6° of march, 1641 : 

Mr Willm Coddington Goverr, 

Mr Willm Brenton Dept Goverr. 

Mr John Coggshall, 


Mr Robert Harding, 


Mr Willm Ballston, 


Mr John Porter, 


Wm Dyre, Secret, 

Mr Robert Jeoffreys 


Mr Nicholas Easton 

Robt Carr 

Mr John Clarke 

John Briggs 

Mr Jeremy Clarke 

Mr. Cornill Const 

Mr Samuel Willbore 

Henry Bishop Const 

Wm Freeborne 

Ralph Cowland 

Philip Shearman 

Mr Bracee 

John Walker 

Jeremy Gould 

Adam Mott 

Henry Bull, Sarj 

Mr Foster 

Jeoffrey Champlin 

Mr Spicer 




Mr Lenthall 
Wm Cowlie 
Geeorg Gardiner 
Robert Feild 
Thomas Clark 
Joseph Clarke 
Robt Stanton 
Thomas Emons 
Job Hawkins 
Rich: Awards 
Thomas Hazard 
Toby Knight 
John Roome 
George Parker 
Richard Burden 
John Smith 
Thomas Wait 
John Peckum 
JMichall WilHamson 

John Hicks 

James Rogers 

Marmeduke Ward, 

Capt Moris, 

Thomas Gorton, Sarj 

Mr Wm Hutchinson 

Mr Samfford 

Mr Sam Hutchinson 

Mr Edw: Hutchinson Senr 

Mr Edw Hutchinson, Junr 

Mr Savadge 

Richard Carder, 

Randall Holden, 

Sampson Shatton, 

Robt Porter, 

These foure by the Court 
at the Sessions march i6 
were disinfranchised y Thr 
names to be Cancelld out of 
the roll." (I. R. p. 33.) 

Seal of Obadiah Holmes 




"At the Generall Court of Eledion held on the 16 ^ 17 
-Z A. march att Nuport 1641. 

It is ordered that Richard Carder Randall Holden Samp- 
son Shatton, y Robt Potter, are disfranchised of the Privi- 
ledges and Prerogatives belonging to the Body of this State 
y that their names be cancelld out of the record. 

It is further ordered that George Parker and John Briggs 
are suspended their votes till they have given satisfacon 
for their offences. 

It is further ordered that Mr Lenthall being gone for 
England is suspended his vote in Elecon. 
By Eledlion 

Mr Wm Coddington is chosen Govr for on whole year or 
till a new be chosen. 

Mr Wm Brenton is chosen Deptie Govr for on whole 
year ^c. 

Mr Nicholas Easton is chosen assistant 1 
Mr John Coggeshall is chosen assistant ! for on whole 

Mr John Porter is chosen assistant year or till 

Mr Wm Balston is chosen assistant J ^c 

William Dyre is chosen Secretarie for on whole year or till 

Mr Robt Jeoffries is chosen Threar of Nuport 
Mr Thom: Spicer is chosen Threar of Ports- 

for on 
• year or 



Henry Bull 1 are chosen sargeant attendants for on 

Thomas Gorton J whole yeare or till new be chosen. 

George Gardiner, ) , ^ , , 

xTTii T- 1 r are chosen Constables. 

Wiiim rreeborn J 

The Court doth declare that it was the Intent of tht order 
made Concerning militarie officers, that each Town or Band 
shuld chuse their officers wthin themselves, iff not to choos 
their officers out of another Towne or Band. 

The Court doth further declare that the Officers for 
militaries affaries is included in that order of yearly Elections 
namelie: in that Particle (all officers ^c) 

Forasmuch as by the dew care of this honord Court divers 
orders from time to time have been made i^ Established 
Concerning Trainings and great neglecft have been therin 
hitherto, wherby great detriment hath iff is like to ensue 
upon the state by reason therof the wh being earnestly desired 
by divers of this Court to be taken into Consideracon. Be 
it therfore enacfted and by this Present authoritie Estab- 
lished that the officers for militarie affairs, vid Captains, 
Leiftents, Ensigns, Sarjeants iff Clarks shall be dewlie 
chosen every yeare at the Generall Court of Eledlion; iff 
that also the officers of Each Band shall be chosen wthin 
themselves or Limitts (and not officers to be chosen on band 
out of another Towne or Band) and further that their Powre 
shall be ordered from time to time by the Towne according 
to the order in tht case Provided; and also that the order or 
orders made aug 6° 1640 Sept 17 1641 be effedually observed 
in all Points, excepting what is already excepted; and that 
all former orders excepting are hereby made void iff of no 

force : 

By Eledion 

Mr Robt Jeoffreys is Eleded Capt for Nuport. 

Mr Jeremy Clarke, Lieftenant. 

Mr Smith Ensigne 

George Gardiner, Sarjant Sent 

1642-1644II AQUIDNECK GOVERNMENT 1642 TO 1644 1 23 

Robt Stanton, Sarjant Junr 

Toby Knight, Clarke. 

Mr Rich: Morris is Elecfted Capt for Portsmo 

Mr Balston, Lieftenant, 

Mr Tho: Cornill, Ensign, 

Mr Cowland, Sargent, Jun'r, 

Adam Mott, Clarke. 

It is ordered that the first munday of every moneth the 
Train bands shall be excersised by the Comanders excepting 
in the moneths of may ^ august Jan y Febru and thewarning 
to be seasonably given by the officers at the on meeting 
against the other iff further, it is ordered that the Capt shall 
chuse their Drumers tff Corporalls. 

It is further ordered that he tht shall kill a wolf upon the 
ysland shall have 30j- for every wolf he kills, also it is ordered 
that the magistrats of each Towne shall procure two men for 
each Town to range the woods for to kill them who shall 
also agree to satisfie them by the day besides the 301 a head 
wh mony or Paymt shall be made the moitie out of each 

Mr JeofFreys Threar his accounts being dewlie examined by 
the auditors by order appointed, and accordingly exhibited 
to this Court, Is allowed of and he is discharged of the said 
account and wt remaines to be Transferrd to the other 
accounts he being again chosen Threar. Also it is ordered 
that the other Towne shall appoint three to audite the old 
Threars accounts, and exhibit them att the next Qter Ses- 
sions, and the remainder to be transferd to Mr Spicer now 

It is ordered that the ordinaries shall no Longer make 
Provision of diett for the Courts of the contrie charge. 

It is further ordered that the 31 a day allowance shall be 
taken of from the officers, and that the Secretarie shall have 
the fees and customes allowed by the Lawes and Constitu- 
tions of England; also he shall execute the Clarke of the 


Peace his office, and for what time the said Secretarie shall 
expend for writting, or enroUing the Courts adls satisfacon 
shall be made out of the Treary. Also the Sarjeants shall 
have the fees allowed them by order of law for their arrests 
and sumons ^c, or upon the States service their attendance to 
to be satisfied, Provided also that by this order their bills for 
the last yeare be not frustrated. 

It is further ordered that ther shall be but one Generall 
Court in the yeare vidgt the Court of Elecon, and that to be 
held according to the antient forme i^ Custome, and but 
two Qter Sessions in the yeare vidgt the one in June the 
other in Decem: and they to be held according to the 
antient forme and Custome, Provided that if ther shall 
appeare spetiall occasion, then the Govt l^ Deptie wth the 
rest of the magistrats or two of them shall have Powre to call 
eyther Generall Courts or more Session Courts, and what 
former orders are Contrary here unto to this Present ad: is 
made void. 

It is also further ordered that such acquittances for the 
receipt of the Land moneys under the Threars hand, being 
exhibited or sent unto the Secretarie, he shall have full powre 
to record the said lands ^ give the Parties exemplifications 
of the same under his hand in the States name. 

It is ordered that if any Prson or persons shall, sell, give 
deliver, or any other waies convey, any Powlder, shott, 
Gunn, Pistoll, sword, or any other Engine of warr, to the 
Indians that are or may prove offensive to this State or to 
any member therof, he or they for the first offence being 
lawfully Convidl shall forfeit the sum of 40J, i^ for the 2d 
offence offending in the same kind, shall forfeit 5/2 half 
to or Sovr Lord the King l^ half to him tht wil sue 
for it y no wager of law by any meanes to be allowed the 

It is ordered tht if John Weeks, Randall Holden, Richard 
Carder, Sampson Shatton or Robert Porter shall come upon 


'4 v> 


Original window is in museum of Rhode Island Historical Society. 

1642-1644] AQUIDNECK GOVERNMENT 1642 TO 1644 1 25 

the Island armed, they shall be by the Constable (calling 
him sufficient aide) disarmed iff carried before the magis- 
trate and there find sureties for their good behavior, and 
further be it istablished that if that Course shall not regulate 
them or any of them then a further dew iff lawfuU course 
by the magistrats shall be taken in their Sessions. Pro- 
vided that this order hinder not the Course of Law already 
begun with J. Weeks. 

It is ordered that the Secretarie shall have full powre upon 
the Threars informacon to sew for the monys that is due unto 
the Threaries 

(I. R. p. 59) 

"At the Generall Court assembled att Nuport on the 19° 
of sept 1642 these orders following were agreed upon. 

It is ordered that George Parker iff John Briggs are 
remitted of their censure of suspencion. 

It is ordered that the freemen of the Towne in their Towne 
meetings shall appoint the Juries for the Courts, y tht they 
shall have powre as well to appoint the Inhabitants, as free- 
men, for that service, by vertue of the Tenure iff grant of 
their lands wh is freehold; and further it is ordered that the 
two Courts in June iff Decemb: shall be held as the two 
Generall Sessions, also that the two other Courts vidgt in 
march y sept shall againe be held and kept as Qter Courts, 
and further it is ordered that the Juriors shall have izd 
a peece pd thm for every Cause upon Issue joined, 
both at thess iff all other Courts held iff kept wthin our 

It is ordered that full Commission is granted to Mr Roger 
Williams to Consult iff agree wth miantonomie Sachem of 
the Narragansets; For the destruction of the wolves that 
are now upon the ysland, as also that they no way damnifie 
the English in that or in a present hunting granted to them 


for the killing of the deare that are upon the same provided 
tht the Indians shall no more require the like Curtesie of 
hunting upon the Island wn as this enterprise is efFedled. 

It is ordered that a Comitte shall be appointed to Con- 
sult about the procuracon of a Patent for this Island and 
Islands iff the lands adjacent, and to draw up Peticon or 
Peticions, iff to send letter or letters for the same end to 
Sr Henry Vane, and that if any oppertunitie be presented 
they shall have full Powre to transact iff send to the fore- 
named Gentlemen or any others whom they shall think 
meet for the speedy eflfecniing of said business provided that 
an oppertunitie be as aforesd presented, between this iff 
the Generall Court in march next wh oppertunitie failing 
then to present the affaires ripened to the Generall Court 
then assembled; iff further it is ordered tht what charges 
shall any way be dispended herein the Body doth ingage 
themselves a dew proporcon therin. 

The Comitte appointed for the transacon of this business 
is the Govr, the Dept, the foure assistants the Secret, Capt 
Jeoffreis Capt Harding iff Mr John Clarke. 

It is ordered that all such freemen that doth not Cohabitt 
upon the Island shall have no vote or Powre to transad: in our 

It is ordered that no man shall be disfranchised, but wn 
the major parte of the bodie intire is Present. 

It is further ordered that all the Priviledges prerogativies 
iff liberties of the Governmt, State, Townes, Persons or 
person is confirmed. 

It is ordered that if any English man shall kill and bring 
in any wolves heads tht are upon the Island iff slain theron, iff 
bring the head therof to the Govr in Nuport or Dept in 
Portsmo, he shall have five pound for his Paines, iff that at 
the next Town's meeting a rate by the townsmen, shall be 
made for every man to pay to it accordmg to his state of 
cattle, wh mult shall be levied, and raisd by the Sarjant, 

1642-1644] AQ.UIDNECK GOVERNMENT 1642 TO 1644 I27 

who shall be satisfied for his Paines, and that both Towns 
shall pay it proporconably to the Cattle therin. 

It is ordered that the Govr ^ Dept shall treat wth the 
Govt of the Duch to supplie us wth necessaries Iff to take of 
our comodities at such rates as may be sutable. 

It is ordered that no person or persons shall make any sale 
of his lands, (in or belonging to our Jurisdicon) to any other 
Jurisdicon or person therin, unless that that Jurisdicon or 
person shall subje(5l to the Governemt here established, 
upon paine of forfeiture of the sd lands so proffered." (I. R. 
p. 64.) 

"At a Generall Court of Eledion held at Portsmo the 
15° of March i643. 

By the Eledion of the Body The officers of the State were 
ele(5led as they stood the former yeare excepting the Sarjants 
wh were 

James Rogers for Nuport 
and George Parker for Portsmo 

Mr. Baulston, Threar of Portsmo exhibited his Thre 
accounts this Present Court and by the Court was allowed 
y the sd Mr Baulston discharged of the sd accounts for the 
time passed, and whatt surpluss remained her to be trans- 
ferred to the other Accounts." (I. R. p. 64.) 

In September a vessel bound from Boston to Virginia, and 
carrying three Ministers, Mr. Thompson, Mr. Knolles and 
Mr. James from New Haven "lay windbound sometime at 
Aquiday" according to Winthrop (p. 115). 

Sometime between 1641 and 1643 Anne Hutchinson, Mr. 
Cornell and some others removed from Aquidneck to a new 
settlement on Long Island Sound near New Amsterdam. 

Under the date of September (Mo 7), 1643, Winthrop 
wrote : 

"The Indians near the Dutch, having killed 15 men, as it 
is before related, proceeded on and began to set upon the 
English who dwelt under the Dutch. They came to Mrs. 


Hutchinson's in way of friendly neighborhood, as they had 
been accustomed, and taking their opportunity, killed her 
and Mr. Collins, her son-in-law, (who had been kept prisoner 
in Boston, as is before related,) and all her family, and such of 
Mr. Throckmorton's and Mr. Cornhill's families as were at 
home; in all sixteen, and put their cattle into their houses 
and there burnt them. By a good providence of God, there 
was a boat came in there at that same instant, to which some 
women and children fled, and so were saved, but two of the 
boatmen going up to the houses were shot and killed. 

These people had cast off ordinances and churches, and 
now at last their own people, and for larger accommoditions 
had subjected themselves to the Dutch and dwelt scatter- 
ingly near a mile asunder: and some that escaped, who had 
removed only for want (as they said) of hay for their cattle 
which increased much, now coming back again to Aquiday, 
they wanted cattle for their grass." (2, 164.) 

"At the Generall Court off Eledion held at Nuport on the 
13 of the first month Ann° i644: 

All were chosen officers againe as they were Last yeare, 
except Mr Jeremy Clark who was chosen Threar of Nuport 
in Mr Jeoffrey's stead. 

The military officers eleded for Nuport was Mr Clark chef 
Mr Smith LLt Georg Gardiner Ens: Toby Knight Clark 
Robert Stanton iff Peter Easton Sarjts John Coggeshall 
Tho: Gould James Barker Henry Timberleggs Corp & Jon 
Hardy Drummer. For Portsmo Capt morris chef Mr Sam- 
ford, LLt: Mr Cornill Ens Mr Willbor Clark Georg Parker 
Tho: Gorton Sam Willbor Sarj John Alsborow Tho 
Brookes Rich: Awards Jo Anthony Corp iff Jo Cranston 

It is ordered by this Court that the ysland comonly called 
Aquethneck shall be from hencforth calld the He of Rhods, 
or Rhod-Island. 

It is ordered that a debt of 30J due to Mr Ed: Hutchinson 

1642-1644II AQUIDNECK GOVERNMENT 1642 TO 1644 1 29 

for trading Comodities shall be satisfied out of the Threarie 

It is ordered that forasmuch as according to divers orders 
by Generall Courts formerly made, That all such Lands as 
were granted to any they shuld be recorded in the State Book 
wh shuld be their Evidence to Perpetuity ^c And itt now 
appearing to this present Court that much Lands have been 
granted unto divers Persons who have made sales therof ^ 
have negle(5led to record their Lands so granted or past or 
so y so to Persons Purchasing the same Lands, and since 
have gone away or departed from this Jurisdiction so that 
originall Records cannot be in a dew forme made. Be itt 
now Established ^ decreed by this Court and the authority 
hereof that all who hath made or shall make Purchases of 
any such Lands and shall sufficiently evince eyther by 
writtings bargins contracfls or other Testimony of the 
Purchase of any such Land or Lands, before on Judg of the 
Court and the Clerk of the Peace, and then the Secret shall 
have full Powre to record the sd Lands in the State Booke 
to the Purchaser ^ in his name then Holding the sd Land, 
wh Record shall be as Authentick to him or them their 
Heires Executors or Assigns as if the sd Lands had been 
originally granted and according to that Trad: in all Points 

It is ordered that Robt west shuld be pd 3/2 from Nuport 
y 2li from Portsmo Threarys for destroying the other wolf." 
(I. R. p. 67.) 

"It was ordered and Agreed by the Body of this State 
Before the eledion this Present day that the Major of the 
Major part of the Body in the Generall Courts, appearing 
shall have full Powre to transa(5t the Affaires of the state 
also, to Impose fines or Penalties upon all such of the Body 
that shall not appeare or other wayes shall negled or absent 
themselves from the service of the state having made their 
appearance in the Court, wthout leave." (I. R. p. 68.) 


Under the date of July 1644, Winthrop wrote: 

"Those also of Aquiday Island, being in great fear of the 
Indians, wrote to us for some powder and other ammunition, 
but the court was then adjourned; and because the deputies 
had denied our confederates, the magistrate thought not fit 
to supply them: but certainly it was an error (in a state 
policy at least) not to support them, for though they were 
desperately erroneous and in such distradlion among them- 
selves as portended their ruin, yet if the Indians should pre- 
vail against them, it would be a great advantage to the 
Indians, and danger to the whole country by the arms, etc., 
that would there be had, and by the loss of so many persons 
and so much cattle and other substance belonging to above 
120 families. Or, if they should be forced to seek proted:ion 
from the Dutch, who would be ready to accept them, it 
would be a great inconvenience to all the English to have so 
considerable a place in power of strangers so potent as they 
are." (2. 211.) 

Shipbuilding early became an important industry at 
Rhode Island. Trumbull makes the following reference to 
it under the date of 1646: 

"New-Haven having been exceedingly disappointed in 
trade, and sustained great damages at Delaware, and the 
large estates which they brought into New-England rapidly 
declining, this year, made uncommon exertions, as far as 
possible, to retrieve their former losses. Combining their 
money and labors, they built a ship, at Rhode-Island, of 
150 tons, and freighted her, for England, with the best part 
of their commercial estates. Mr. Gregson, captain Turner, 
Mr. Lamberton and five or six of their principal men em- 
barked on board. They sailed from New-Haven in Janu- 
ary, 1647." 

(Trumbull's Hist, of Conn. p. i., p. 161.) 

Winthrop referring to 1646 wrote: "Mr. Lamberton, Mr. 
Grigson, and divers other godly persons, men and women. 

1642-1644] AQUIDNECK GOVERNMENT 1642 TO 1644 I3I 

went from New Haven in the eleventh month last in a 
ship of 80 tons, laden with wheat for London; but the ship 
was never heard of after. The loss was very great, to the 
value of some looo pounds; but the loss of the persons 
was very deplorable." (2, p. 266.) 




AT the [Q]ter Session held att Portsm the first of June 
Ano 1641 
An ac of debt commenced by mr wm Brenton of Portsmo 
agst Ralph Earle of the same Towne upon two bills by the 
Ralph Earle signd ^ DD to mr John yarrow of London 
haberdasher, demurd 
(R. I. C. R. p. 16.) 

At a Qter Session Court held at Portsmo the i of Dec 1641 

Petit Jury imp. 
Jeremy Gould 
Richard Awards 
John Walker 
Thomas Emons 
Job Hawkins 
Ralph Cowland 
JeofFry Champlin 
Ralph Earle 
Thomas Atkinson 
Thomas Brooks 
Richard Hawkins 
Thomas Gorton 

Grand Jury 
Jeremy Clarke 
Richard Morris 
Thomas Spicer 
Thomas Cornill 
John Anthony 
William Freeborne 
William Foster 
John Roome 
Joseph Clarke 
Toby Knight 
Geordg Gardiner 
Richard Barden 

The aeons Entered 

An aeon of the Case between Tho: Brassy of Nuport Pla 
y Henry Bishopp of of the same tow deffd. 


An aeon of the Case between Henry Bishop of Nuport 
Pla y Thomas Brasey of the same tow deffd. 

An aeon of debt commenced by Henry Bishop of Nuport 
Pla iff Thomas Brasey of the same tow deffd. wch three 
aeons were taken up by arbitracon 

An aeon of the Case Commenced by [Thomas] Apple- 
gate of Nuport Pla agst John Roome of the same towne 

An aeon of the Case Corheneed by William foster Junr agst 
Anthony Paine of Portsmo deffd. The defF before Tryall 
promised to give satisfacon for the sd Coat demanded iff 
what damages i^ charges shall be thought meet since the 
Lone thereof by two Indifferent men. 

An aeon of the Case between Ezekiell holyman of ham- 
brook ^ pla agst Thomas Read iff Isaac Allerto of the masa- 
chusetts demurrd. 

An aeon of the Case between mr. willim Coddington of 
Nuport Agst Richard Tew of nuport Clifts who appeared 
not, being Returnd summond 

The Court orderd an attaehmt upon his pson Lands goods 
iff Chattells for the Jury to assease 20/ damages the next 
Sessions [marginal note] 

A Capias awarded served upon the 

It an aeon of debt Commenced by the sd mr Coddington 
pla agst the sd Richard Tew 

[Marginal note] both these aeons by plantiff are deffer[ed to] 
the sessions in May. 

The Grand Jury Return these psons following as having 
agst the peace of our Sovern Lord the King his Crown iff 
dignitie transgresd. 

George Parker of Portsmo for drunkenness iff to appear the 
next cort iff continued till the next. 

being Con[vieted] the . . . was bound to his good 

* Hambrook is on Aquidneck. 


James Tarr of Portsmo for drunkenness. 
[Marginal Note] being the i time Convict was ad(judge] to 
sit in the stocks. 

Robert Ballard for oppression in the way of his Servt 

John weeks for Defamacon of the Island y the Governr 

Richard Tew for non prformance of a Bargaine of Farm- 
ing of mr Wm Coddington Contra St. 5 Ed: 4 

John Briggs of Portsmo for Trespassing agst Adam Mott 
of the same Towne In taking y Killing a whitt weather 
goat somwhat [Damdg?] price 12s 

The Towne of Nuport for want of a prison 

(R. I. C. R. p. 17.) 

Petit Jury 













second Jury 
[J]ermy Gould 

(Prob. Mar. 1641/2) 

Grand Jurii Imp. 
Jeremy Gould 
wm Foster 
Michall Williamson 
John Room 
Tobie Knight 
George Gardiner 
Thomas Spicer 
Adam Mott 
Willm Freeborne 
John Walker 
John Anthonie 
Job Hawkins 






An aeon of the case commenced by Nicholas Cotterell of 
Nuport agst wm heavens of the same towne Carpenter con- 
cerning a deed off a house sold to the sd Nicholas conceived 
to bee fradulent John Room Ingageth himself that wm 
Heavens shall answ this suitt the next Cort. 

An aeon of the Case coihenced by Thomas Cornill of 
Portsmo agst Henry Bull of Nuport concerning a sow by 
the sd Henry driven out of the Comon find for the deffendant 
damag 2d Costs of the Court. 

An aeon of the Case Comenced by John Gibbs of Nuport 
seaman agst John Briggs of Portsmo concerning a Sow in 
difference find for the plaintiff the sow i^ 6d dammage ^ 
costs of the Court 

The said John upon Judgmt given was also bound over to 
his good behavor till the next Court, 

An Aeon of the case comenced by Thomas Applegat of 
Nuport pla against John Roome of the same towne Carpenter 

An aeon of the Case comenced by Jeremy Gould agst 
Thomas Applegate both of Nuport the cause by thm both is 
relfered to Mr Coggeshall ^ are bound in 10 Li days to other 
to abide [the] arbitration by the last day of Apr 1642. 

The aeon of the Case comenced by Jeremy Gould of 
Nuport agst Mr. Foster michall williamson ^ John Peckam 
of the same Towne demurred till next Court. 


William Chapman Sojourner at Mr. Balst[on] of Ports- 
mouth found y Inditted for taking away out of a chest a 
cap y [pair of St]ockings to the valeu of \od was adjudged 
to be whipt. 

The Court held at Portsmo the 8° of June butt non ap- 
pearance was Generall. 

John Briggs being bound over to this Court in a bond of 
lo Li to or Souveramg L the Kmg upon testimonie of his 
neighbors of his peaceable ^ good behavor was released 
paying charges. 

(R. I. C. R. p. i8.) 

[Probably at Quarter Court held in September 1642] 

A sale of Land by Robt Carr of Nuport to Mr. Jeremy 

Clarke made on the Eigth day of Sept Ano dom 1642 vid 

Towne Register 

prse Wm Dyre P. CI 

Memorandum that on the Eigth day of Sept 1642 Mr 
Wm Coddington Mr John Coggeshall i^ Mr Jeramie Clarke, 
bought and purchased to them their heires ^ assignes of 
Robert Carr a prcell of Land contayning sixtie two ac 
more or less lying on the East sid of millbrook bounded on 
the south by the hieway that goes to the great Comon in 

Wm Dyre P. CI. 

memorandum that on the Eigthteeth day of Sept Ano 
1642 Toby Knight of Nuport bought i^ purchased of Thomas 
Beeder of the same Towne his hous lott contayning four ac 
more or less wth another like prcell adjoyning wch was the 
houslott of Robt Root i^ by assignmts transferred to John 
Mott who discharged [to] the Threarie i^ then sold it to the 
sd Thomas i^ inffeofed the sd Toby into the full possession 
y injoymt of the said Land housing ^ fencing therto belong- 
ing in 

prsent Wm Dyre P. CI. 


Memorandum that on the Ninteenth day of Sept Ano dom 
1642 Robert Staton of Nuport bought and purchased of 
Thomas Beeder of the same Towne a prcell of Land lying 
on the South side of the harbor bounded on the East by 
Toby Knights Land on the South by the Comon on the west 
by James Rogers Land i^ on the North by the harbor wch 
deed of sale by the sd Thomas Beeder was made to the sd 
Robert Stanton his heires y Assignes for Ever in prsent 

Wm Dyre P. Cler. 

An aeon of the Case comenced by Thomas Slade of 
Portsmo agst wm withrington of Nuport. 

An aeon of the Case com by Mr Wm Brento of Portsmo 
agst Wm Richardson of Nuport 

Gilian Touzar [or Tonzar] ^ is discharged of her Recogniz 
paying her fees. (R. L C. R. p. 18.) 

At the Qter Session Court held att Nuport the 7° day of 
dec. Ano Do: 1642 


Jeremy Gould 


John Smith 


John Peckham 


mar: ward 


John Room 


Tobie Knight 


Robert Stanton 


JefF. Champlin 

par ... 5s 

Rich Morris 


... in 

Rich Barden 



Rich Hawkins 



Michall S 

George Parker 

John Anthonie 

John Roome 

Christop Holmes 

^ Perhaps 

identical with the Gillian 

who was wife of John Vaughn in 1644. 


The ac between Nicholas Cotterell iff wm Heavens adjoined 
to this Court. 

The aeon of debt comenced by wm Dyer against John 
Briggs of Portsmouth for court fees by the sd Briggs de- 
tayned promised to satisfie 

The aeon of mr wm Brenton agst Ralph Earle in the behalf 
of Mr John Yarrow of London haberdasher Reviued y 
Issued the Jury Returned find for the plaintiff the house i^ 
Land y Twenty pound damag and the whole chardges of 
the Court, 

[Marginal Note] The pi declared two bills of iii Li i^ the 
disprove a colatoll satisfad:ion propounded i^ accepted 
by an attournmt . . . that by the party himself a writting 
drawn but not interchangably signed the issue ut apatur. 

An aeon of the case depending between Ezekiell holyman 
y Isaac Allerton tff Thomas Read of Salem upon an attach- 
ment of goods for a debt due to the widdow Sweet now the 
wife of the sd Ezekiell demurrd bill dd againe demurrd. 

An aeon of Trespass com by Adam Mott of Portsmouth 
agst Ralph Cowland of the same Towne in 20 bush corne 
i bush of Indian Beanes Refferd Mr. Eston hath undertaken 
to satisfie the pi for io bush of corne. 

An aeon of the case com by Wm Withrington against 
Mr Wm Balston of Portsmo on 10 £i dam for retayning his 
couent to him dds we found for the defendant cost 6d iff 
the charges of the Courte 

[Marginal Note] The pi declared for an Indenture of his 
servt dd to the deflPt to keep the pi gave his servt the last 
yeare but to be at his masters disposall, the case beeing 
mingled the issue ut aprtm. 

An aeon of Case commenced by wm withrington agst 
Ralph Earle of Portsmo for detayning his servant Nathaniell 
Browning to Arbitratio. 

An aeon of dd for Retayning Joseph Ladd to Arbitration 
(R. I. C. R. p. 20.) 


At the Qter Court held at Portsmo March 7 [1642/3] 

Jury Imp and Sworn 
Thomas Burton 
Jeremy Gould 
George Parker 
John Anthony 
Thom: Emons 
John Briggs 
Wm Freeborn 
Henry Bull 
James Babcock 
Robert Bennett 
Wm Field 
Wm Amie 

An ac of the case come by Esek Holyman agst Isaac Al- 
lerton in an aeon of 2 years dependance upon Arreages of a 
purchase between the sd Isaac and mary Sweet the wife of 
the sd Ezekiell the rest 4 Li i^ a barr of mackrell find for the 
pi: damages 7 Li i^: costs of the Court 24® etc. 

An ac of the case by mr Nicholas Easton agst Henry 
Bishopp of Nuport twice sumd ^ non appearance the court 
awards An attachmt it was issued the 7° of Jun Ano 1642 
find for pi damage 50^ y charge of the Court 12^ 3^: 10^ 3^^: 

An aeon of the case comr by Ezekiell Holyman agst Ralph 
Earle of Portsmo 30 L' damage demurrd find for pi 13L 2® 2^ 
cost of the Court issued the 7° of June 1642. 

An ac of the case coiii by Jeremy Gould agst wm Richard- 
son of Nuport demurd wth a cross ac by the sd Richardson 

An ac com by John Smith agst Jeremy Gould demurrd 

An ac of the case com by John Gibbs seaman agst Ralph 
Earle of Portsmo demurred 

An ac of the case commenced by Jeremy Clarke on the 


behalf off Sampson Salter pi upon the attachmt of goods of 
the widdow Sutherland of Long Island demurred. 

An aeon of the case com by Henry Bull of Nuport agst 
Ralph Earle of Ports: agreed that Ralph Earle shall nt 
take any thing from the house of the sd Henry that is nayld 
or pinned, ^ tht the sd Ralph shall keep the sd house l^ 
lot tenentable in regacon (Casualties excepted y tht he 
shall leave the other lott next adjoyning to it of 3 ac fenced 
^ broken up at the end of a yeare to the sd house and lott 
the sd Henry dding 6 bushells of Indian marchandable corne 
to the sd Ralph at a Lady day next come 12° mo: further tht 
the sd Ralph shall not destroy the old stock of hopps ^ tht 
the sd Henry shall have Libertie to sell the sd house y Land 
y Ralph to degt at 2 mo warning given him as two men 
Equall judgmeet for consideracon of his depture each one, 
provided the sd Ralph shall nt be damnified in his crop. 

Ralph Earle upon the impanelling of Jury chalenged 
threeupon the ray vidzt John Smith Rich burden ^ Rich 
morris for that they wth the rest of the Jury in the Tryall 
(between himself ^ mr Brenton in the behalf off mr Yarrow 
of London haberdasher had) went contrary to their oathes 
and that sd he I will prove: wherupo the three prayed proves 
tht the sd Earle might be made good his Charge: 

bond to appear if^ give ans: to wt shall be objedled. 

The sd Ralph Earle upon the 7° day of June 1643 did in 
the presence of the Court acknowledge y confessed that he 
had scandalized and done great wrong unto the prties 
afornamd ^ the Right wth them accused by him in that he 
had them accused in saying (they had gone contrary to their 
oathes l^ tht I will prove) for wch I am hartily sorry ^if do 
pray them to use so much lenitie ^ mercy as to pardon that 
expression or the like to that purpose by me uttered i^ I 
shall acknowledg my self thankfull ^ gratiously dealt 

Teste pr Cur will Dyre Reg. (R. I. C. R. p. 21.) 



At the Qter Session held att Nuport the 7° day of June 


An aeon of the case commenced by wm Dyer of Nuport 
agst Thomas Applegate weaver of the same towne for de- 
tayning of goods to the damage of 40^ the D: acknowledged 
wrong, y was injoyned to aske forgiveness of the PI: ^ his 
wife for wronging of them y so cary back the goods to the 
PI. house. 

Itt An aeon of the case Commenced by wm dyre of 
Nuport agst wm Richardson of the same Towne to the 
valew of 3 li/damag concerning a sheep killed by his dogg 

Itt an ac of the case Commenced by Robert Harding of 
Nuport agst wm withington of Sachuis upo the forfeiture of 
abond of iooli 

Itt An ac of debt by the towne of Nuport agst Edw: 
Andrews Richard Tue 

Itt An ac of Trespass com by Henry Bull agst Thom : Apple- 
gate of the same Towne in damagg Apple is to satesfie the 
Pla as his neighbors hath done ^ doth 

Itt An ac of the Trespass Com by Henry Bull of Nuport 
agst Ed Robinson of the same Towne demurrd. 
Itt An ac of John Richman agst John wood of the same 
Town in an ac of Trespass; Referrd to mr Easton in 8** 
a peice to abide the arbitrmt of all causes. 
Itt An ac of slaunder by John Richman agst Job Tiler of the 
same Towne for saying in the mouth of two wittnesses tht the 
PI stoole a bagg of meale y layd it in his house (confessd by 
the deft tht he did him wrong, the Jury find for the pla 
xxs damagg iff costs of the Court iff to aske forgiveness of 
the pi who did iff was forgiven 


It an ac of Trespass by David Greenman agst John wood 
of the same Towne Reffered. 

It an ac of the case com by Ralph Earle agst wm Richardso 
of Nuport RefFered 

Ralph Earle acknowledging his faults comitted the last 
Cort was Remitted of his Recognisance paying his charges 
of Court is discharged. (R. I. C. R. p. 22) 
It an ac of Batterie Comced by Jno Briggs Constable of 
Portsmo agst Jno Slade of the same Towne. 

to pay the pi 5 li 

The Court doth order that Thomas Sladde is ordered to 
pay to Rich morris Lambert woodward Richard Readman 
each of them 6s 8d for their costs 

Itt an ac of the Case com by Edw: Andrews of Stony River 
agst y upon an attachmt of goods belonging to John Allen 

Lett sallen 

Job Tyler being accused by two witnesses for slighting the 
Authorie when the S[er]jant came to Sum him that he 
sd he car'd not a fart[or] turd for all their warrants, who 
be adjudged to be whipt till his back be bloody 

The Court doth order that a standard for measures vidzt 
a half peck i^ peck shall be made for each Towne iff that they 
shall be made equall wth mr Hardings seald measure (and 
James Rogers to do them wthin 3 weeks) also that a seale 
shall be made to seale them ^ then all measures to be made 
y sealed by them iff further it shall nt be lawfull for any to 
buy or sell but by such measures that are authorized by the 
standard iff seald according to law in that case pvided. the 
care wherof for the oversight for prsent is comitted to the 
magistrats to see sd measure equall iff seald. 

The court doth order exec to be made upon Jno Roome iff 
wm heavens for the mony dew to Nuport for thr Lands. 

The Court ordered this prsent Session that Edward 
Andrews having exhibited sufficient proof of a good iff suffi- 
cient purchase of the land of John Allen in Nuport being 


a 4 ac lott more or less is also to make sale therof iff to 
award the title good 

The Court doth order tht the Rigster shall make out exec 
upo Henry Bishop for charges dew unto him vidzt ioj 

An ac of Trespass com by Henry Bull agst Edward Rob- 
mson for a pound breach to the damagg of 5 li 

It is ordered that every man m his Jurisdicon shall secure 
sufficiently his owne corne feilds by a fence as also to secure 
his neighbors from damage in the same upo paine of dowble 
damagg upo dew informacon and proofe 

An ac of the case coin by Mr wm Coddingto of Nuport 
agst Thomas Stafford iff Nicholas Cotterell of thesameTowne 
for Non prformance of Covenant upo damag of 

By the assent iff consent of Edward Robinson iff Henry 
Bull mr Wm Coddington Gent iff mr Nicholas Easton are 
jointly chosen iff if they cant agree they to choose a third to 
determine all cases of difference tht is or hath been to this 
prsent day the 7° of June 1643 upo paine off forfeiture of x li a 
peice to each other 

An ac of Trespass agst Robert hobbs of Nuport com by 
wm withrigto 

An ac of the Case com by wm withringto agst Robert 
Harding of Nuport 

(R. I. C. R. p. 23.) 

At the Qter Session held at Portsmo September 5° 

The acs depending between mr Robert Harding and 
william Withington upon prayer of both were Reffered as 
appeares by the joint petcon of both exhibited to this 

Most humbly petcon of Capt Robt Harding off Nuport iff 
wm withington of the same. 

Most humbly sheweth tht yor peticoners having wearied 
themselves wth those controversies iff suits wch they have 
for long since both troubled themselves iff freinds in both 


wch arbitracons iff suits and uncomfortable troubles do now 
enter into some strong ingagements each to other to have a 
finall end therof and to this end that the award may be 
Irrevocable we desire tht the sd award may be Recorded in 
the Court Rolls 

And we most humbly pray of this honoed Court to 
have this our peticon i^ ingagement to be Recorded 
amongst the Records of this prsent Court also, vidzt or 
Ingagmt is on hundred pounds a peece tht each of yor 
peticoners shall dd into the hands ^ possession of Mr wm 
Brenton mr John Porter Isf mr John Clarke of their owne 
pper goods looli into their hands iff possession to Remaine 
to this use, that is to say we having bound orselves in 
lOoli a peece each to other to abide the finall determinacon 
of the aforsd mr Brenton mr Porter iff mr. John Clark or 
any two of them touching all these controversies wch now 
are between yor Peticoners iff on Robt hobbs iff yor peti- 
cioner wm withington, in all iff all manor of Aeons Suites iff 
controversies concerning ether the Comon Law or Equity 
wch now is or may be between any of those prties from the 
beginning of the world to the day of the date hereof prvided 
tht the end iff purpose wch the loo/z that is to be dd into 
those 3 gentlemens hands is to this purpose, tht when those 
three or any two of them have dewly examined the truth 
and equitie of thoss controversies iff determined therof, tht 
then they shall out of tht lOoli give dew satisfacon to the 
wronged prson and the Remainder unto him to whom it 
belongeth and that at the publicacon of their Award iff 
giving satisfacon therin iff Ristoring the overpluss to the 
Right owner yor peticoners shall then make seale and dd 
each to other a generall Release from the beginning of the 
world to the date herof, And tht or Agremt between us is 
and also or desire of the Court that wn the Award is made 
it may also be Recorded in the next Court iff farther, it is 
desired tht all three of the arbitrators be prsent wn the Award 


is made iff dd also tht it be Issued wthin ten dayes of the 
date herof 

dat Sept 8 subsc Robert Harding 

William Withington 

The petcon of Capt Robt Harding iff wm withington is 
accepted iff by this Court confirmed to be so ordered iff ac- 
cordinglie recorded and for the further confirmacon therof 
the psons abovsd did Reciprocally dd an assumpsitt of blew 
wampom each to other saymg I bmd my self by the Receav- 
ing of this Assumpsett to dd into the hands of the three 
gentlemen above named looli for the use iff end tht is 
menconed and farther upo the assumpsitt it is accorded that 
they bind all their Lands goods iff Chattells for the prform- 
ance thereofF 

[petit] jury Imp. 
Hall Xs 

Grand Jurie Imp: Sworn 

Richard Morris 

John Anthonie 

Tho: Emons 

wm Freeborn 

John Briggs 

wm Almie 

John Hall 

John Crandall 

Tho: Stafford 

Jeffrey Champlin 

John Vaughan 

John Richman 

Itt the aeon Com by mr wm Coddingto of the case xxli 
agst Tho: Stafford iff Nicholas Cotterell for non prform- 
ance of Covent the Jury find for pla damag 40J iff the Charges 
of the Court iff to pay back agen wth they have Rd over- 


Itt an ac of case Com by mr Nicholas Easton pla agst 
Thomas Bracee 5/f damag for nt making his fence find for 
pla id y in case the fence be not done by munday come 
seven night then 3/1 ^ the chardges of Court 

It an ac of slaunder com by Richard morris of Portsmo 
agst Ralph Earle xxli damage find for pla damage 2d ^ to 
acknowledge in the Court tht he had wrongd Richt morris 
in saying he had forged a fals bill ^ the like to be done at 
Nuport y if he Refuse to abide the sentence of the Court ^ 

An ac of mr Jeremy Clark agst the Towne of Nuport 
upon Areregs of money due to him wherupo an attachmt 
is granted ^ sved upo the Publick house of the sd Towne 
2oli damag if the Towne satisfie nt by next Court then 
Judgment to be granted. 

An aeon of the case com by Nathan Browning agst wm 
withrington of Nuport Arbitrated 

An ac of the case com by Ralph Earle of Portsmo agst 
wm withrington of Nuport 


memorandum tht Ralph Earle l^ wm withington have bound 
themselves in 40 li p peec to or Soveraigne Lord the Kings 
mtie to stand to the arbitremt of mr Nicholas Easton ^ mr 
wm Balstone, as well in this case as in the three other before 
one being between Browning ^ withington l^ in case the 
two caunt end then the arbitrats to chuse a 3d the time of 
their limits is on mo from the date herof. 

An aeon of the case com by mr Nicholas Easton upon an 
attachmt of the Record of the Land of michel williamson 
demurrd Issued by the Sessions July 7° and find for the pi 
proved dd to the deft 450 of Iron at 7 li 10s, Spoild in 
corne i: ioj ^ a debt — 9J y costs of the Court w: 6d A fees 
— los R: ch: 6s: Jury 12s 

An aeon of the case commenced by JeofFry champlin upon 


an attachmt of the goods i^ Lands belonging to michall 
Williamson of Nuport demurrd 40J 

An aeon of the case com by mr wm Coddingto agst Tho 
owin, marchant up5 an attachmt of goods i^ cattell i^ a debt 
in mr Coggeshalls hand. 

The cort doth order tht the goods cattle ^ debt attached 
for in y upon this aeon shall be prised by the Sarjant y by 
him seen forth Coming ace to a dew cours of Law ^ the debts 
satisfied upo the ysland off the sd goods l^ chattells the said 
Owen y wt overpluss shall be found upon the same tht the 
creditors of the other shall have the Remainder 

An aeon of the case com by Thomas Applegat of Nuport 
agst Edward Andrews of the same Towne Referd to mr wm 
Coddingto y mr Nich. Easto 

(R. L C. R. p. 25.) 

An aeon of the case com by wm dyre on the Towne of 
Nuport behalf agst wm Richardson Ezekiell holyman y 
Thomas Bracee for not paying their Towne Rates Com- 
pesition mr Bracee if he come nt by the next cort y satisfie 
Judgmt shall be granted 

An aeon of debt coin by wm Dyre on the behalf of Nicholas 
Cotterell of Nuport agst wm Riehardso of the same Towne 

An aeon of debt com by wm Dyre on the behalf of the 
Towne of Nuport agst the Towne ^ Treasurie of Portsmo 
in a debt of iii 3^^ 4J demurrd The cort doth accept the 
propocon of the Towne of Portsmo by mr wm Brent5 for the 

An aeon of the Case of Equitie coin by Ralph Earle of 
Portsmo agst mr wm Brenton Dept Govt of the same Towne 

An action of the Case coin by Thomas Applegate of Nuport 
agst wm Heavens of Portsmo upon a morgage of house y 
land Consigned by Sam Willbore to the sd Thomas Refferd 

An aeon of the ease Com by John Smith of Nuport agst 


the sd Towne of Nuport, if satisfacon be nt given thn 
Judgment be granted in the next court. 

An aeon of the case com by Jeremy Clark agst Ralph 
Earle It is agreed tht Ralph Earle for the satisfacon of mr 
Jeremy Clarke debt of 28 li principall for wch the house 
wch the sd Ralph Earle sometime bought ^ tied for the 
satisfacon of the principle debt of the sd Jeremy some 3 
years since the sd Ralph doth promise to surrender wthin 
3 days to the sd Jeremy or his assignes wth the lot iff fencing 
thrto belonging wch house lott fencing y all apurtenances 

fixed therunto shall so be faithfully ^ delivered 

wth all claims Right or interest by the sd Ralph his heirs 
or assignes in the sd house lott iff appurtenances thrto now 
fxed or belonging upo wch true ^ faithfull deliverie the sd 
Jeremy Clarke doth acquite discharge iff Release the sd 
Ralph Earle of the sd 28/1 wth all arreages debts or demaunds 
fro the begining of the world to this prsent 

(R. I. C. R. p. 26.) 

At the Qter Session held at Nuport the 3 of dec Ano 1643 

Petitt Jury Impa: [Grand Jury] 

iff Sworne 

Jer Clark Jer: 

Sam Willbore Sen Tho 

Jo: Peckham Geord G[ardiner] 

Jo: Hall Rich. H[awkins] 

Tho: Gorton John Hicks 

Tho: Layton Rich Bur[den] 

James Badcock Hen Knol[les] 

James Weeden John Smith 

Jeffry Champlin marm: war[d] 

John Alsborow wm Almy 

Tho Cornill Toby Knight 
John Tefte 



Robt Stanto 
Ed Robinson 
Toby Knight 
Rich Morris 
Capt Harding 


An ac of the Case corn by Thomas Tewe Marriner agst 
mr John Coggeshall upo the attachmt of his boate, find for 
the defft 2d dam ^ costs. 

An aeon of the Case com by wm Almy of Portsmo agst 
Georg Roame marriner upo x li damage find for pla: 
XX d debt to be pd in silver ^ 2d damag ^ costs 

An ac of trespass coin by Job Tyler agst mr. Nich 
Easto .... 

An ac at Case com by Nicholas Easton agst How 

of Long Island demurrd ^ againe demurrd 

wm Richardson upo his Inditmt of selling a peec to the 
Indian was injoyned to bring in againe the sd peec by the 
last day of June ensuing. 

Upo the ac between N Cotterell^ Tho: Applegate the last 
Cort it was disired that Jeremy Gould ^ Capt harding 
might find the matters of difference between them ^ bond 
them selves in x li a peece to stand therto provided it were 
issued in a month 

An ac of the case Com by mr Nicholas Easto agst mr will 
Foster RefFerd. 

An ac of the Case Com by John Stretton marchant agst 
Tho: Toue marriner upo 100/2 damag find for pla loli damage 
y costs of Court y each of them to have their proper goods 
in the vessell exec award: . . . nihill habet: a Capias was 

Tho: Gennings acqt his indidmt by Crandall ^ paying 
chardges is freed 

John Briggs paying his chardges is acqted of his Indidmt 

Nicholas Brown paying Chardges is acqted his Indidmt. 


Robt Hobbs paying chardges is acqted his in Indtmt. 

Robt Bentett of Nuport being inditted this prsent Court 
for reporting slanderous speeches concerning the Gor was 
committed and acknowledging his fault i^ the due deserning 
of Condigne punishmt the Gor Interseded the Court for 
mercy, the Court Injoyned the sd Bennett both at this 
Court y the next qter Court as also att the next Generall 
Court to acknowledg his offence both to the Gor i^ the 
Court or els by liable to farther sentence 

John Roome upo his Report of some slaunderous speeches 
concerning mr Coddingto Govr being Indited ^ committed 
acknowledged his offence ^ disired hartily to be Remitted 
wch was to pay chardges. 

George Cleere i^ John Cory being indited upo suspicion of 
felony ^ bound in x li a peec to appear the next Qter Court 

Ralph Earle againe for misbehaving himself it was ordered 
that execucon shuld go forth for breach of his Recognizance." 

(R. I. C. R. p. 27) 

At the Qter Session Court held at Portsmouth the 7° of 
the i mo 1644 

[Antho]ny Paine 

It an ac of debt up5 the forfeiture of a Recognizance of It 
com by henry Bull agst Edw: Robinson both of Nuport 
found for the pla the forfeiture ^ costs 


Itt an ac of the case Com by Richard Awards agst Richard 
Hawkins And Thomas Brookes of Portsmo, iipo a bill of 
debt, find for pla the bill of ... y costs 

It an ac of the case Corn by Richard Hawkins ^ Thomas 
Brooks of Portsmo against Richard Awards of the same towne 
find for pla x s dam i^ costs 

An ac of the case bet John Hall iff Wm England of Ports- 
mo agreed tht England shall Return 14 score of Railes to the 
place when he had them. 

An ac of the case bet Tho: Gorto y wm Almy Agreed 

An ac of the case com by Jeremy Gold on the behalf of 
Robt Lenthall agst Robt Bennett Taylor agreed 

memo John Hickes of Nuport being bound to the peace 
by the Govt iff Mr Easto in a bond of x li for beating his 
wife Harwood Hicks iff prsented this Court was ordered to 
continue in his bonds till the next iff then his wife to come 
iff give evidence concernmg the case 

Georg Laycon bound ov by the dept iff at the Court 

memorandum That Ralph Earle of Portsmo Carpenter 
acknowledges to owe to or Soveraigne Lord x li to be Leived 
of his Lands goods or chattells the bond to appeare the 
next session at Nuport iff nt to dept the Court wthout 

John Roome iff Tho: Gorton as his sureties in 8 li pr- 

Memorand that mr Thomas Burton att this Court ex- 
hibitting a motion by way of Complaint that John Free 
defundl at Newport by the fall of a Tree was indebted unto 
the sd Thomas the sum of Eight pounds or therabouts iff 
the sd John leaving nothing behind him to give satisfacon 
but a peeic of Land lying att Hambrook containing ten ac 
more or less facing upo the mill, the Court doth by this 
order allow and Authorize the sd mr Burton to adminster 
upo the sd pcell of Land taking unto and injoying the same 


peacbly ^ quietly as his owne peculiar Right wth the Evi- 
dences herof unless any other as the True heire of the sd 
John shall come and make claime therof wthin on yeare ^ 
a day and so satisfie tff difray the sd sum of Eight pounds i^ 
the Arreages therof Teste William Dyre pac: cler: 

(R. I. C. R. p. 28.) 

Taken out of a letter from John Hicks to mr Coggeshall 
dated at Flushin the 12 of decemb: 

now for parting what way ther is seeing she have carried 
the matter so subtilly as she have I know nt, but if ther be 
any way to bee used to untie that Knott, wch was at the 
first by man tyed that so the world may be satisfied I am 
willing ther unto, for the Knot of afFedlion on her part have 
been untied long since, and her whordome have freed my 
-conscience on the other part, so I Leave myself to yor advise 
[being free to condissend to yor advice if ther may be such 
a way used for the finall parting for us. 

Teste William Dyre Gen Record 
(R. I. C. R. p. 36.) 

In the records of the Quarter Sessions of 7, i, 1644 will 
be found a previous reference in regard to the case of Hicks 
vs. Hicks which eventually culminated in a divorce. Horod 
Hicks, nee Herodias Long, married secondly George Gar- 
diner and thirdly John Porter. 

"At a monthly Court Held at Nuport the 6th day of 
Jan: 1645 

An aeon of debt Com by the Recorder of the Towne on the 
Townes behalf agst Ed: Robinson wm weedan James 
Weedan ^ Nicholas Cotterell for monyes dew for their 
Lands who appeared nt, Cotterell forwarnd the Sarjant of 
his ground telling him tht if he or any of his Confederates 
did Come to take his prson or goods, they shall find hott 
water, ^ further tht he was no officer nor would he obey 


Marmeduk ward Jo Vaughan John Hornden Toby Knight 
and George Hamund warnd to serve upo the Jury appeard nt 
iff lost their Issues 

Mr John dolling of vncaway merchant having part of, 
y goods in a shipp lately brought to Anchor in Nuport 
Harbor iff being unwilling that she should dept in an un- 
seonable time drew up a protestacon And by the Authoritie 
of Mr Jeremy Clark being on of the magistrates sent the 
serjant therwth to the master of the sd shipp, who gave 
affedavitt this prsent Court of the ddrie therof into the 
hands of Thomas Newton Master of the sd shipp or vessell, 
wch protest the said John dolling peticoned this Court to 
be entered into the Records therof the better to give Evi- 
dence therof to such whom afterwards it might further 

I John Dolling of uncaway Merchant doe by these presents 
as Aturney for John Richbell Merchant, and for myself, 
Protest against the setting sayle of the shipp Virgin now at 
Anchor in the Road of Nuport and doe hereby deliver that 
itt is by me this present day Protested wittness my hand 
this 4 of Janu: Ano: i645 

pr mee John dolling 

Before me Jeremy Clarke the day & yeare above written. 
Supers To Thomas Newton Master of the said shipp" 

(R. I. C. R. p. 33.) 

From the above entry it would appear that they had 
monthly courts at Newport as well as at Portsmouth. The 
Quarter courts it will be noted met alternately at Newport 
and Portsmouth. 

"At a Qter Court held the first Tewsday of March 1645 

Richard Morris 
Richard Burden 
panelld iJ Jo: Greenman 


for the Tho: Brookes 

persone David Greenman 

Rich morris Henry Bull 

teased John Vaughn 

Jeremy willie 
John Horndall 
John Green 
Tho: Brookes 
Richard Awards 
Marmaduk ward 
Note that in the morning the Towne Court was proclaind 
but defFdts Came nt. 

Itt the ac prosecuted by the Towne agst Ed: Robinson the 
Jury Returnd found 4/281 arreareges find more xxs damage 
y the Charge of the Court 28 s 

[A marginal note gives the account itemized, but it is 
almost illegible.] 

Ed Robinson bound to his good behavr to appeare the 
next Sessions in xx li John wood ^ Robt Griffin his sureties 
in X li a peec, W Robinson became bound in xx li bond to 
same upon farmless discharged at Portsmo paying fees. 

Itt thear prosecuted on the Townes behalf agst Nicholas 
Cotterell the Jury Returnes found 40 j- arraredges l^ \os 
damag l^ charg of the Court 28 s 

Nich Cotterell bound to his good behavr y to appear 
next qter session in x li Jeremy Gould l^ Robt Stanton his 
surties in 8 li a peec 

Wm y Jamics Weedan Junr presented by the G Jury for 
setting of traps so likewise [William] Jeoftreys Jer: Goulds 
sonn in Law" (R. I. C. R. p. 34.) 

"At the Quarter Sessions Court held att Nuport the 6th 
of oC(5lob Ano 1646 upo an adjournmt 

Petitt Jury Grand [Jury] 

Tho Cornill Tho: Corn [ill] 


John Smith R: Griffin 

Rich Morris J wilHs 

Robt Griffin J Richman 

Jo Horndall R Burden 

Jer Willis Wm Freeborn 

Mar ward 

Jo Richman 

Rich Burden 

Ralph Cowland 

wm Freeborne 

Jo: Walker 

upon the last 

trial of Tho: Gold 

sam willso 

R Bennet 

H Walton 

R Stanton 

J Barker 

An aeon of the Case com by Bartholemew Hunt Edward 
Greenman and Robert Bennett agst Jeremy Gould the 4 of 
June delayed to this Court Issued and found for the Plain- 
tiffs X li damage the fence to be the sd Jeremies and accord- 
ing to the Record so to mainteyne itt iff the Costs of Court 

[An illegible marginal note gives the charges.] 

Thomas Gould Inditted by the Grand Inquist for breaking 
the Peace Refusing to give baile for his good behavr was 
Commited to the Constable till further order being found 
guilty upo the Traverse 

Capt Partridg atturny for Georg Hamond demanded 
Early declaracon agst him or else a non suitt iff Costs, 
Judged for execucon 5 J" 4^ 

Memord that on this prsent 8 day of ocflober I Daniel 
Gould of Nuport in Rhode Island came into this Court in 
prsonall . . . some iff did accknowledg to surrender up all 


his Right and tittle in wtt ever estate he had or could make 
claime unto into his father Jeremies hands for the satis- 
facon of the Cause depending between his father ^ mr wm 
Coddington Memorand that Mr Easton ^ Mr Balston 
Magist being sent by the Court to Thomas Gould being in 
duranc Retarnd this Ans: That Thomas Gould sonn to 
the sd Jeremy did acknowledge himself to surrender all his 
Right y Tittle in wtt ev estate he had or could make claime 
unto into his fathers hands for the satisfacon of the cause 
depending between his father y Mr Willm Coddington of 

Memorand that on this prsent 8th day of odob that 
Jeremy Gould of Nuport came into this Court and did 
acknowledg himself to bee indetted unto Wllm Coddington 
[to] the sum of one thousand pounds to be Levied of his 
lands goods ^ chattells for the use of [the] said William 
Coddington, prvided that no Execucon shall be issued out 
upon this Judgm[ent] untill the arbitrators chosen in this 
Cause between the pla ^ defFt shall be agree[d] the Award 
be dd or Ready to be dd . . . unto them in writting under 
their hands ifJ se[ales] and if the prtie judged to be indebted 
against whom the Award shall be shall R[efuse] to dd up so 
much of his Estat as shall Satisfie the Award Then Execucon 
for [so] much as the Award shall be shall issue forth by the 
powre of this Court agst body, goods & Chattells, and from 
this prsent ad: ther shall be no appeale prvided that [both] 
Jeremy iff Willm doth upo this judgment consist, and the 
Record therof made [did] choyce of eight Arbitrators vidzt 
Mr John Porter Capt Alexander Partridge, Mr Rog[er] 
Williams Capt Jeremy Clarke Richard Burden, Chad 
Brown, Mr John Clarke ^ Ezekiell [Holliman] ^ did author- 
ize them wth full powre to judge iff issue all manner of 
differences de[bts] or demands that is hath or may be pre- 
sented since the beginning of the world to [the] day of the 
date herof between them and do both agree for themselves 


heyres [ ] and administrators, that if all or six of the 

eight shall accurr then the case is full[y] determined but 
if ther do but five of the eight agree then a fift prt of the 
award to be abated y the determinacon of those five to 
stand good and effed:uall, bu[t] ^ if ther be an equall 
divident between them that is foure ^ foure then to deter- 
mine itt by Lott Any two of the Arbitrators to cast itt The 
Time That the Arbitrators shall have to Issue this shall Bee 
till the Last day of Novemb next ensuing 

Memorand that Mr William Coddington did acknowledge 
y cijfess the above said in[strument] also unto Jeremy 
Gould reciprocally ut supra dicitur" (R. I. C. R. p. 7.) 

"At a Qter Session hold att Portsmouth December Ano 
Dofh 16^6 

An aeon of the case com by William Withington pla of 
Nuport agst John wood of the same upo xx nobles damag 
Delayed till next Court find for the defendant costs 

An aeon of the Case com by Nicholas Easton agst Henry 
Timberleggs upo xx li damg delayed 

An aeon of the case com by Nicholas Easton pla agst 
John Wardie of In damg of xx nobles delayed 

An aeon of the case com by mr Easton pla agst George 
Baldwin upo x li damag delayed mr Balston Bayle 

An aeon of Sclaunder Co by Jeremy Willie of Nupt agst 
Walter Lettice upo xx li damage delayed mr Jeremy Clark 

An aeon of the Case com by Richard Knight pla agst 
William JeoflPreys bearing dat 27° Novemb upo dam of 30/1 

An aeon of debt com by Richard Awards of Portsmo agst 
Wm Almie of the same towne 18 li damag delayed Baile 
Rich morris y John Briggs defF Nihill dixitt [Marginal note 
"dec filed the 2d dec"] 

An aeon of Trespass com by Richard Awards pla agst Wm 
Almie upon damag of 30 li del Baile Rich Awards i^ John 
Briggs find for pla debt 16 li 10 s iff 21 p stock damag 10 li 


The Court ord the Rec to sew Ralph Earle for forty 
shilling upo the breach of the Law in furnishing an Indian wth 
a Gun he being convicH: by wm Balsto if^ others also to Pay 
5 J for being drunk or to be stockt, the Court held at Nupt 
Ord Judgmt 

The Court orders the peece that is in Mr Eastons hands 
wch was taken from the Indian provd to belong to Thos 
Layton and to be dd to the Recod who is to keep itt till the 
40 s be pd., it is also granted that the sd Layton may appeare 
at the next qter Court iff be heard in the case non appear- 
ance Judgmt orderd. 

An aeon of Trespass C. by Richard Burden pla Cont 
Ralph Earle loo It damag Willm Richardson iff Earth Hunt 
baile 100 li a peece 

An aeon Com by Nich Easton pla agst Wm Dyre 5 marke 

An aeon of trespass of Mr Easto contra George Baldwine 
20 marks damage 

An aeon of trespass com by wm dyre of Nuport pla agst 
wm Coddington deft in an aeon of ... to the . . . dam- 
mage 40/1" (R. I. C. R. p. 9.) 

"Ingrocmt of Mr Coddington declara[tion] May the 
XXIIth 1646 

The declaracon of william Coddington of Nuport in 
Roade Island Gent Plaintiff agst Jeremy Gould of the same 
towne Complaineth agst the said Jeremy in an aeon of debt 
of breach of Covenant by vertue of a Covent or lease, Signed 
y Sealed betweenethe forsaid PlantifF and defft interchang- 
ably and befor divers sufficient wittnesseth, bearing date 
the first day of July in the sixteenth yeare of king Charles 
Ano. 1646 that wheras the sd Jeremie hath by his lease or 
Covent Indented and bound himself to keep and mani- 
teyne himselfe his wife iff a maid servant iff five able men 
kind good workers to bee imployed upo and about the 
demised premises of the farme for the benefitt of the said 


farme Ifj also one to keepe the demised goates y the said 
Jeremy is to the best of his skill to imploy appoint ^ im- 
prove the Labors of himselfe ^ those other eight prsons 
befor Covenanted for for the best advantage of the said 
farme ^ the said Plaintiff y Now so it is that for the space 
of above thess three yeares last past that is to say from the 
23 day of o(5t 1642 untill the 25° day of may 1646 the sd 
defft hath willfully negleAed the observing of his Covent y 
hath not kept so many able servants as his chardge, neyther 
hath he the sd defft to the best of his skill imployd him- 
selfe y those other eight prsons before Covenanted to the 
best advantage of the demised premises to the damage of 
the platf 500 li 

And wheras the said defft is to Redeliver two of the oldest 
demised oxen unto sd Pla ev yeare yearly during the Covent 
on the first of May and to Receave tw[o] steeres in their 
Roames, the sd defft hath refused so to do to the damage of 
sd Pla 20 li 

And wheras the said defft is to imploy the Labors of the 
draught Cattle Coming unto him for the best advantage of 
the demised prmises i^ the Plaintiffs thatt is to say twelve 
oxen, one stoned horse i^ one mare the sd defft hath divers 
times used the demised oxen to his owne use i^ profitt on 
y above the twelve dayes specefied in his Covent ^ also 
the demised horse y mare wholy to his owne use l^ service 
y nt at all upo the demised prmises according to the true 
purport y meaning of the Covent to the daiiiag of the sd 
Pla 10 li 

And wheras the sd defent is to mainteyne ^ make good 
sufficient fences ab[out] the demised prmises, And to beare 
Equall charg therat for the preservacon ^ Safety of the 
Corne ^ seed sowen the said defftt hath nt sufficiently at all 
kept the fences in good Repair for the space of thess three 
ye[ares] last past to the damage of the Pla 300 li 

And wheras all ac(5ls wch shall arise to be dew unto the 


Pla shall be [ten]dered iff Cleerd once in six months, he the 
sd defFt hath not tenderd hath not cleered no accfl for 
the space of thess three years [last] past to the damag of 
the Pla 100 li 

And wheras the sd defft was to expend the surpluss of . . . 
upo the Cattle of Pla iff defft equally by Number iff growth 
and on no other persons the said defft for thess three winters 
last past hath kept divers nombers of Cattle over iff above 
the plaintiff Contrary to his Covent to the damag of 50 li 

And wheras the said diffendant is by his Covent bound to 
imploy himself and those eyght persons Covented for to the 
best of his skill for the best benefit iff improvmt of the sd 
demised prmises now so it is that the said defft hath nt 
imployed himself iff those eight prsons to the best of his 
skill for the manuring of the demised premises in keeping it in 
good . . . fitt for tillage but hath worne itt out for want 
of good manuring to the damage of the Pla 200 li 

And wheras the sd defft is to Cary all the Corne of the 
demised into the barne or barnes of the demised prmises iff 
ther according unto [the] intent and purport of the Covent 
to cause it to be therashed, ^ ... to give notice to the 
pla wn it is so therashed iff cleansd . . . devided ther 
by the bushell, the sd defft contrary herunto hath . . . 
to the sd Pla att any time or times to ... at the great 
. . . Corne so threashed iff cleansed as aforsd to the 
damage of li" (R. I. C. R. p. 3.) 

[undated Court Record] 
"Memo that upon the misbehaviour of Ralph Earle of 
Portsmo this prsent Court In comming ther into iff saying 
that if the Court would not administer an oath unto him he 
would administer it to himself iff so Informe the Grand Jury 
divers iff other Rude deportmts he was bound to his good 
behavior in the sum of Tenn pounds to or Soveraign Lord 
the Kings matie. 


An ac of slaunder by Com Richard Morris of Portsmo 
agst Thomas Gorton of the same Towne in xx li damage 
for the extravagancie of his wives Tongue in abusing the 
sd Richard, the Jury find for pla x li damage iff costs: 
or else the woman to acknowledg her fault, who accordingly 
did y the damag was Remitted 

An ac of the Case Com by Henry Bull ^ Nicholas will'd 
agst John Throgmorton 

An ac of Case Com by Nicholas Cotterell of Nuport agst 
Thomas Applegate for [defed] of his fence wherby the pla 
hath susteined damag to 5 li by the deflPt demurrd 

An ac of the Case Com by John Alsborough of Portsmo pla 
agst Wm withington of Sachuis 5 H damag by the deflp demurrd 
till the next Court & then upo non appearance of the defF 
the Issue was joined and found for pla ^os damage and costs. 

An ac of slaunder Com by Adam mott Senr agst John 
Anthony x li dam by the assent of both being bound in a 
bond of X li 2l peece that the Govt Mr Easton Mr Coggshall 
shall determine all matters between them in 3 dayes 

Ther were 5 aeon com between Jeremy Gould ^ John 
Layton but all demurrd iff at the next Court agreed that 
Mr Brenton Mr Balsto Mr Easton iff mr Jer: Clark should 
determine the matters in difference." (R. I. C. R. p. 13.) 

"The declaracon of John Richman of Nuport plaintiff agst 
John west of the same towne in a plea of sur le case Com- 
plaineth that wheras the said John Richman plaintiff did 
agree wth the aforsd John west by a verball accord vidgt 
that the sd defft shuld helpe to build the said plantiff a 
mansio house by the mill brook at Nuport iff to be finished 
by Aprill last past was twelve months the deffendant hath 
nt so done to the damag or yr pla. xxx li 

thirtie eight weekes diett iff washing to the valew of nine 
pounds ten shillings at five shillings p week. 

And further the said Pla Complaineth tht wheras seeing 
ther was no written Covent nor wittness of the bargaine 


making between the sd Pla ^ defft but the sd Pla relying 
upo the honestie of the defft in the accord, Yett so it is that 
since the house so farr done as it is, and the difference arysing 
between the sd Pla i^ defft the Pla hath divers times offered 
to Comprmise the matter of difference between them and to 
that end did take wth him two sufficient workmen to Judge 
of the worke who have given undre their hands their estema- 
con of the sd work tht so a peaceable end might be made 
the sd defft hath Refused to attend therto to the damage 
of yr pla xx li Refered ^ ended." (R. I. C. R. p. 4.) 

"The declaracon of Mr Willm Coddingto pla agst Jeremy 
Gold defft, Complaineth against the sd defft in an aeon of 
Accoumpt May 22° i646 

Wheras the sd pla did demise in the yeare 1642 unto the sd 
defft 60 female goats y 3 shooc rams to be kept of the demised 
premises at the care i^ chardg of the defft for the milck y 
the one moytie of the increase and to deliver unto the pla 
yearly the other moyetie and thess to be pted yearly when 
they are weaned after the old stock being made up out of 
the ewe kidds befor the divident Now soe it is that the sd 
defft hath at no time for the space of fowre yeares last past 
mad no divident of the increase of the demised goats unto 
the pla to the damage of the pla twenty pounds 

And wheras the sd pla did demise in the yeare 1640 unto 
the sd defft eight Cowes to bee kept as aforesaid and the 
increase therof equally to be divided in the beginning 
of May the yeare after they are fallen (and in the meane 
before the divident) they to be kept on the farme in the 
most secure place from harme y danger according to the 
true purport ^ meaning of the Covent the sd defft Con- 
trary here unto hath nt for thess five yeares last past kept 
the increase of thess demised cattle in some safe i^ secure 
place on the farme neyther hath made any true divident of 
the increase of the demised cattle unto the pla to the damage 
of the pla 50 li 


And wheras the sd pla did demise unto the defft in the 
yeare aforsd one mare to be imployed of the demised prmises 
y the sd pla to have l^ Receive one moyetie of the Labor 
y increas of the sd mare, the defFt Contrary herunto hath 
nt at all or at least once made any trew divident of the 
increase to the damag of the pla 6 li 

And wheras the sd pla did demise unto the sd defFt in the 
yeare aforsd one farme Contayning 350 acs more or less to 
be imployed l^ improved to the best of the skill of the defFt 
for the best advantage Ifj Profitt of both, the pla y defFt the 
sd defFt is to give Iff yeeld unto the pla the one moyetie of 
all the increase of the Corne arising l^ growing of the demise 
prmises Now so itt is that the sd deft for the Space of five 
yeares last past hath broken up and sowed for score or 
100 acs of Land more or less wheron hath Risen y growne 
great crops of severall graine to the valew of 1500 bush a 
yeare at least wherof no accompt hath been given unto the 
pla to the damage of the pla 400 li 

Wheras the sd pla did demise unto the sd defFt in the 
yeare aforsd to be kept at the care 15" chardg of the sd deft 
8 Cowes y that if threw the will full negled: of the sd def- 
fendt or any of his servts that any of the sd demised Cattle 
shall dye or be killed then shall the sd defFt beare the loss, 
Now so it is that two of thess demised cattle hath threw the 
will full negledl of him ^ his servts been killed i^ dyed to 
the damag of the pla 14 li 

And wheras the sd pla did lend unto the defFt in the yeare 
aforsd one black ston'd Colt the sd defFt hath nt since tht 
time Rendered him againe but hath Converted him to his 
owne use to the damag of the pla 12 li 

wheras the sd defFt doth stand indebted to the sd pla for 

3 yds § of dimetie valew i s 2 bush ^ | of salt 13 9 d for 

4 skinns 1 2J for wheat 3 J- 9^ for a bed cord I J" 8^ . , . candles 
3/ 4^ for freitt of a . . . u 3J for x\s dew upo the last 
accompt 4/1 paid for you in the Pay to Mr Wm Ting for 


Iron xxj a sith "js a new sack ... all wh i^ the sd defFt 
stands in debt unto the sd pla to the damage of the pla 10 /z " 
(R. I. C. R. p. 4.) 

"The sum of the Presentment of Samuel Gorton at 
Portsmouth in Roade-Island, hy the Grand Jury. 

First, that Samuel Gorton certaine dayes before his ap- 
pearance at this Court, said, the Government was such as 
was not to bee subjecfled unto, forasmuch as it had not a 
true derivation, because it was altered from what it first was. 

2 That Samuel Gorton contumeliously reproached the 
Magistrates calling them Just Asses. 

3 That the said Gorton reproachfully called the Judges, 
or some of the Justices on the Bench (corrupt Judges) in 
open Court. 

4 That the said Gorton questioned the Court for making 
him to waite on them two dayes formerly, and that now hee 
would know whether hee should bee tryed in an hostile way, 
or by Law, or in sobriety. 

5 The said Gorton albdged in open Court, that hee looked 
at the Magistrates as Lawyers, and called Mr. Easton, 
Lawyer Easton. 

6 The said Gorton charged the Deputy Governour to 
bee an Abetter of a Riot, Assault, or Battery, and professed 
that he would not touch him, no not with a paire of tongues: 
Moreover he said, I know not whether thou hast any eares,^ 
or no: as also, I think thou knowest not where thy ears 
stand, and charged him to be a man unfit to make a warrant. 

7 The said Gort07i charged the Bench for wresting wit- 
nesse, in this expression, I professe you wrest witnesse. 

8 The said Gorton called a Freeman in open Court (saucy 
Boy, and Jack-an-Apes;) and said, the woman that was 
upon her oath, would not speake against her mother, al- 
though she were damned where she stood. 

1 See Doc. Hist, of R. I. vol. i, p. 64. 


9 The said Gorton affirmed that Mr. Easton behaved him- 
selfe not Hke a Judge, and that himself was charged either 
basely or falsly. 

10 The said Gorton said to the Bench, Ye intrude Oaths, 
and goe about to catch me. 

11 The said Gorton being reproved for his miscarriage, 
held up his hand, and with extremity of speech shooke his 
hand at them, insomuch that the Freemen present said, 
Hee threatens the Court. 

12 The said Gorton charged the Court with adling the 
second part of Plymouth Magistrates, who, as hee said, con- 
demned him in the Chimney corner, ere they heard him 

13 The said Gorton in open Court did professe to main- 
taine the quarell of another being his Maid-servant. 

14 The said Gorton being commanded to prison, im- 
periously resisted the authority, and made open Procla- 
mation, saying, take away Coddington, and carry him to 
prison; the Governour said again, all you that ow^ne the 
King, take away Gorton and carry him to prison; Gorton 
replyed, all you that own the King, take away Coddington^ 
and carry him to prison. 

William Dyre Secretary." 

(Winslow's "Hyprocrisie Unmasked," 1646, p. 55.) 

Seal of Benedict and Damaris Arnold 


THE following contemporary letters with their homely 
details give a little local color to our idea of 
Newport life in the early seventeenth century. 

*'To the Right WorshipfuU and his much estemed John 

Winthrape Esqr. Governour of the Massachusets, 

dd. in Boston. 

Right Worshipful, — Haveing so opportune a measeinger 
as your owne Indean, being by my pinnice returned from 
Blocke Hand, i^ doth now hast to returne unto yow, I doe 
make bould to salute yow, haveing littell else to informe 
your worship of. Mr. James being returned lately from 
Quinepage doth informe that the Inhabitants did give their 
power to the Church, iff the Church hath chosen Mr. The- 
ophilus Eaton their Magistrate, for so they call him, Mr. 
Newman, Mr. Ffugall, Mr. Gilbard, Captin Turner, as- 
sistants. He did lickewise informe that they have taken 
one of the Pequit murderes Nepawbuck by name, y have 
putt him to death. I have the names of 12 of the Pequits 
morders that are yet alive. Your Indan knowes some of 
them, his brother more, iff wher they live. Our Indeans 
here are peaceable, though we trust them not. Could be 
glad to here from your worshipe, if any thinge be attempted 
aginest them about two maires i^ cowe we heare they have 
killed, that we might stand upon our gard. I am removed 
12 myles further up to the Hand. Ther they have gathered 


a Church, Iff doe intend to chuse officers shortely, ^ do 
desire better healpes in that kind, when the Lord is pleassed 
to send them, ^ would gladly use what meanes doth lye 
in us to obtayne them. Things are in fare better passe 
conserning our civill governmentt then they have bene, 
divers Famelyes being come in that had revolted from ther 
owne a(5le, ^ have given satisfaction, Mr. Gorton & Mrs. 
Huchson doth oppose it It Vv^as hached when I was in the 
Baye, iff the Lord, I hope, will shortely putt an esew to it. 
Being in great hast, with my love to yourselfe, Mrs. Win- 
thrape, y all that doe remember me, I take leave iff rest. 
Yours to be commaunded wher in I maye, 

Willm Coddington. 
Acquednecke, Decmr. 9. 1639. 

Mr. John Cogshall, Mr. Willm. Brenton, iff Sergant 
Balstone doe desire to have their service presented to your 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, *'Mr. Coddington." (M. 
H. S. C. 4, 7, 279.) 

"To the Worshipfull and his much respedled frind John 
Winthrape Esqr. at his howse in Boston, dd. 

Worthy iff Beloved, — I have recaived your letter sent by 
my Cozen Burt, in answer wher unto I would not have 
yow trobled how to write unto me, seeing at this distance 
we knowe not how other wayes to confer to geather. Many 
loveing letters have passed betweene us, at a fare greater 
distance of place then nowe we bee at. Possibely yow may 
conceive of things deeper, or otherwayes, then ther is cause 
for. I doe intend to answer for my selfe (by neighbors) I 
doe not knowe howe yow doe meane, unlesse it be the 
brethren that did remove with me. It may be they are 
better able to answer for themselves than I am, I was sick 


when the measinger yow mention came to the Hand, who 
said they had onely one Question to put to me, which wos 
whither I did hould my selfe to stand a member of the 
Church of Boston or not. I answered, to my best remem- 
berance, to this effedle, that the Question was very con- 
siderable, iff needed my best health to answer to it, but 
for these grounds I did scruple it, viz: after serous debate 
at 2 Solomon meeting, in which very few of the members 
wos wanting (to my best rememberance, i^ so others afFerme 
allso) which meeting was first accationed by the motion of 
one of the members nowe resident with you, and as I toucke 
it in the name of others; my selfe and Mr. John Coggshall, 
being to geather at my howse, w4th some other brethren, 
that wee two, iff some others he mentioned, would remove, 
for their peace, iff settlement, ^c. I did inquire how that 
might be without offence, he said he would procuer us a 
church meeting, in which it should be transacted. At the 
later, our teacher being out of the towne when the former 
wos, it wos with the generall advice iff consent of all (as 
I take it) we were commended to the grace of God in Christ 
Jesus in our removall, iff it wos the substance of Mr. Cot- 
ton's sermonds the next Lord's Day, wher ther wos not 
Churches to commend their brethren two, ther they might 
commend them two the grace of God in Christ Jesus; which 
I have related to some Elders iff brethren of other Churchs 
amongest your selvs, as else wher, some by word, others 
by writing, iff though they differ as I have to show, " i El- 
der sayth it wos a dumbe dismishon. 2: Elder sayth it 
wos because most of them wos departed in their spirits 
then from the sents here. The 3d Elder sayeth directly that 
it wos a dismishon, iff that your church had not further to 
doe," ^c. And trewely I would seriously move this ques- 
tion, that if the Church Covenant did reche me, being 
removed, upon what grounds they did first advise iff motion 
my departuer, which must of nessetye cutt of that relation. 



For that place aleged by yow, Mathew i8, it doth re- 
mayne yet to be proved by scripture that any Church did 
ever clame power over their brethren, removed by their 
consent, more then those that wos never in fellowshipe 
with them. It wos tendered by Mr. Hibings, ^ accepted 
by me, that some thing should be donn on this kind, but 
I have hard no thing of it as yet, I would therfore wish my 
brethren knewe it, ^ that I wos not thus charged. 

2ly I may to your selfe answer my dismishon out of the 
Commonwealth, l^ when I wos departed the feare that 
the contrie expressed, which stands upon recourde in your 
Court booke, that my selfe ^ others of us wos gone out of 
the way, (when wee went to seeke out a place for our abod, 
y though I have it to shew under your selfe ^ the Gover- 
nors hand that nowe is, that I had a yeares libertye for my 
removeall) to escape onely the censer of the Court for the 
present, y therfore it was inacted that unlesse we were 
departed by such a tyme, we were to appeare at the Courte. 
For my owne part, I was not willing to live in the fyer of 
contention with your selfe (^ others whome I honered in 
the Lord), haveing lived 7 yeares in place of Goverment 
with yow, but chose rayther to live in exsile y to put my 
selfe upon a sudayne removall, upon 14 dayes tyme, to a 
place with out howseing, chuseing rather to fall in to the 
hand of God; which what my selfe ^ wife ^ fameyle did 
induer in that removeall, I wish nether you nor yours may 
ever bee put unto. If after all this under taken of my part 
for peace, we must clash, ^ make it appeare in the Chris- 
tan world, we that are as a citty set of hill: (the will of 
our God be donn) I could wish for the good of both plan- 
tations that it wos other wayes, y muteall love i^ helpe- 
fullnes continued. 

For the letters you mention, they haveing said before 
that they had onely one thing to propound to me, y not 
profering me any leters, I might not possibely attend, being 


sick, to what passed aboute them, as indeed I do not re- 
member now, would they that wos aboute me have bene 
wiUing, yf they had profered me them, that I should then 
have read them, feareing it would doe me hurte. Sence 
my recovery I have desired a copy of them, ^ have bene 
promised one. The other thing you mention, concerning 
our uncurteous entertayment of your Church's measingers, 
I have enquired into it, ^ cannot understand but that they 
were recaived with resped: ^ curteously entertayned at 
both plantations. 

For the Indeans I could wish all lenety towards them, 
which understand not possibely the natuer of a promise, 
they saye it was that if any iniueryed the EngHsh, they 
would not protedle them, but deliver them up to make 
satisefacHiion ether in their persons or estates. Ther is a 
lude Felowe, one Tho. Saverye, whom I heare is now in 
durance with yow, who haveing stolne a paire of showes 
from my howse, of the Lords day, iff heareing it was dis- 
covered, fled from the Hand to the 7 myles river, iff ther 
being aflBidled in consence, (as he pretended) for what he 
had donn, came to acknowledge the evill of it, iff give 
satesefacflion. I susspedled though he seemed to crye, he 
did but dissemble, therfore searched him, iff found of him 
a silver s[. . . .] marked 1639, w^hich he said he had 6 yeare, 
which wos [ajbove 4 yeare before it wos mayd, allso a 
bugle puree iff a gould ringe, (which he said he found, as 
theefes use to fynd their goods) but wanting a prison he 
mayd an escape from us before punishmentt, aboute 5 
weekes sence. Lately I wos informed that at a place caled 
Puncataset, upon the mayne land, wher he keept the last 
sumer, iff wos much freequent in folowing, ^c. he hath a 
child by an Indean womon, which is a boy, iff is not black- 
haired lick the Indean children, but yelow haired as the 
English, y the womon being laitely delivered, doth say 
English man got it, iff some of them name him, iff when 


he ranne away from us, he would at Titecute have lyne 
with Knowe Gods mother, which doth speake of it in 
detestation, ^ that those that professe them selvs to be 
Christians should be more barberous iff wyld then Indeans, 
to the reproch of our nation ^ the dishoner of God. Seing 
God hath delivered him into your hands, I thought meet 
to informe yow, that yow might se justice donn of him. 
Thus with my due resped: to the Governor, your selfe, the 
Debty Governor, Mr. Endecote, Mr. Humfreyes, Mr. 
Nowell, y Mr. Bradstreete, iffc. I sease from writeing, but 
not from remayneing 

Your loveing frind till death 

Wm. Coddington. 
Newport this 22th of May 1640. 

Ther is a lude person, one Hugh Durdall, that Mr. 
Pamer brought in to the cuntrie, being bound over to 
answer some misedemenour at the next Courte, hath mayd 
escape awaye about 2 dayes sence, ^ is feared will git 
passage in the West Indean ship. He is much indebted 
here also. 

Fale in Dom: Jesu.^' 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop., "Mr. Coddington, Resp. 
(4) 11,-40." (M. H. S. C. 4, 6, 316.) 

"Right worll 

We have laitly received a letter from Barborah Sabire, 
the wife of James Sabire, now resident in Boston, with you, 
wherin we understand tht he hath made complaint of her, 
if not false accusations laid against her, theirfor we thought 
good to testefy, being desired their unto, what he con- 
fessed upon examination, before us whose names are heare 
under written: The ground of his examination was from 


some false reporte he had raised up against his wife, we 
calld them falce because they proved so to be when they 
weare inquired into, but not to trouble you with those: 
A word or tow of what he did confess, when the question 
was demaned of him, did your wife deny unto you due 
benevolence, according to the rule of god or no. his answer 
was she did not, but she did iff had given her body to him, 
this he confessed, ^ did cleare her of tht wch now he con- 
demes her for iff this may evince it iff prove it to be so, for 
he did heare likwise reporte his wife was wth childe, wch 
we understand he doth also deny unto your wor'pps and 
tht will also prove him to speake falsely if he shall say his 
wife did deny him manage fellowship untill he did come 
under your goverment: 3 dly this we must wittness that 
his wife was not the ground or cause of his being sett in 
the stockes, but for his disturbance of the peace of the place 
at unseasonable howers wheras people w^eare in bedd, iff 
wthal for his cursinge iff swearing iff the like, Againe a 
word or tow conserning his life when he was wth us, It 
was skandolus iff ofFencive to men sinful! before god; iff 
towards his wife. Instead of putting honour upon her as 
the weaker vessell, he wanted the naturall affection of a 
reasonable creature, we also found him Idle iff in deed a 
very drone sucking up the hony of his wives labour, he 
taking no paines to provide for her, but spending one month 
after an other wthout any labour at all, it may be some 
finde one day in a month he did something being put upon 
it, being threatened by the govourment heare; iff Indeed 
had he not bene releived by his wife iff her freinds wheare 
shee did keepe, he might have starved, besides he is given 
very much to lying, drinking strong waters and towards 
his wife showing nether pitty nor humanetie, for Indeed 
he could not keepe from boyes i^ servants, secrete passages 
betwixt him iff his wife about the maryage bedd, and of those 
things theire is more wittenesses then us, and concerning 


her; she hved wth us about 3 quarters of a yeare, whose 
Hfe was unblamable befor men for anything we know being 
not able to chardg her in her life l^ conversation but, be- 
side her masters testemony, who best knowes her is this, 
that she was a faithfuU, carfull, l^ panfull both servant ^ 
wife to his best observation, during the tyme wth him, 
those things we being requested unto, we prsent unto your 
wise considderations hoping tht by the mouth of 2 or 3 
wittnesses, the innocent wilbe accquitted, ^ the guilty re- 
warded according to his worke; thus ceasing further to 
trouble you we take our leaves ^ rest. 

Your worppl Lo : freinds 
Willm Hutchinson 
William Baulston 
William Aspinwall 
John Sanford 


the 29th of 4th 1640" (M. H. S. C. Winthrop papers i, 135.) 

"To the Worshipfull ^ his much respected frind John 
Winthrope Esqr. at his howse in Boston, dd. 

Per Mr. Jer. Gould. 

Newport Aug. 25, 1640. 
Worshipfull y Beloved, — Your leter of the nth of the 
4 mo. I recaived. The substance of your whole leter to 
me falles into these 2 heads. 

First will conserne your Church Covenant: this I aleged 
in my former leter as that which wos the princepale force 
with me, which yow did not answer unto, viz. That it 
doth remayne to be proved by the rules of the gosple, that 
any church ever clamed power over their brethren removed, 
more then over those that was never in fellowshipe with 
them. Mr. Hibings promised, ^ I accepted, that your 


church covenant should be sent, with grounds to prove 
this poynte. The other that yow answer tow, of the advice 
I had taken with Elders iff brethren in the poynt, iff of the 
consent of the maior part of the Church, was but suborde- 
nate to this. 

2 head of your leter doth trench upon the passages, con- 
cerning Mr. Weelewrights banishment. What I did ther 
in wos in discharge of my conscence in my place. And 
trewley, Sir, to my deserneing, whither yow did well or I, 
depends of the trewth of the cause, the way of soulvation, 
iff evidenceing therof, which Mr. Cotton iff he affermed, 
iff the rest of the Elders opposed, which remaynes yet con- 
trovered, for ought I knowe. I well approve of a speech 
of one of note amongest yow, that we were in a heate iff 
chafed, iff were all of us to blame; in our strife, we had 
forgotten wee were brethren. Not further at this present. 

I wos advised by leter first out of the Baye that the 
Governor, iff the Deputy, iff other of the magistrates had 
adviced iff incouraged the towne of Brantree to commence 
a sute aginest me, after I recaived a note from the Gov- 
ernor that it wos for a promise. I knowe no thing of it, in 
regard wher of I desire that the Plantives may put in their 
Complant in Answer, iff that I may have tyme given to 
put my defence, seing, for these reasons I have aleged to 
the Governor, iff others, I cannot be free to come iff plead 
my cause, iff seing it is according to what is pradiized in 
our native land, iff the courts of justice ther established. 
I could wish that we, that have lived 7 yeares in place of 
magistracey to geather, might not multeplye greveances 
one aginest an other; but I shall not ade further ther in. 
I have sent over the berer, Mr. Jer. Gould, who is de- 
sirous to confere with your worship about it. The Nara- 
gansets iff Nantequits keepe constant wach sence Con- 
ectecute men touck 3 Nantequits. Ther be 12 notorious 
murder[er]s yet liveinge, 4 at Nantequite, ^ 8 of them at 


Mohegen according to my best intelegence, whose names 
I have. The Nanteqets would dehver up their 4, but they 
would have Ocas first deliver up his 8, that they may see 
its justice the English seekes. With my love ^ my wifes, 
presented to your selfe iff yours, I rest yours 

Wm Coddington." 

Indorsed by Gov. Winthrop, "Mr. Coddington about 
the Church, R (6) 25,-40." (M. H. S. C. 4, 6, 318.) 

"Honnored Sir, — I doe thankefully acknowledge your love 
unto mee in your kind profer to my agent, Mr. Jer. Clarke, 
to return to me my runn away servant, Tho. Jonnes, in 
case hee could have bene found. I shall be ready to bee 
commaunded by yow in the licke or wherin I may heare. 
Now deare Sir, for soe you have bene to mee, as Sollomon 
sayth, ther is a frind that [erased] nearer then a brother! 
Oh, that the nearnes of that relation had never bene vyo- 
lated. But wee are men, iff so wee shew ourselves. Some 
tymes deifying of men iff ordenances, other whyle vylefy- 
ing of them. The Lord hath let mee see the vanetye of 
my owne spirit, and need of attending of him in all his 
ordenances, but I cannot inlardge, the meassinger staying. 
My desire is, that that anchent love which much watters 
cannot quench, may bee renewed, iff in token wherof, 
that yow would recaive, at my hands, a smale remember- 
ance therof, in a vessell of beefe, for your winter provishon, 
which is not yet redy, but aginest that tyme by some 
pinice that commeth this way, shall be sent unto yow. 
Though the thing bee not worth the mentioning betweene 
us, yet because I remember your loveing excussing of your 
non-acceptance (of my profer in this kind att my depar- 
tuer) so as it did not, nore doth not take any imprestion 
of unkindnes with mee, iff I hope that which wos then a 
ground to yow is removed, yet I desire yow fully to satisefye 


mee heare in, if it (or rather I) may thus fare fynd accep- 
tance with yow. Not other at present, with the remem- 
brance of my love iff my wifes to your selfe iff yours, with 
all that remember us, I rest 

Your assuered lo: friend Wm. Coddington. 

Newport, mo 4. 12, 1643." (M. H. S. C. 4, 6, 319.) 

"Honered Sir — 

Yors of the (8) ic^43 I have received filled wth exsamples 
of the Judgments of God of the Duth iff English that fell 
by the Indeans, for the English yow mention, their forsake- 
ing the fellowship of god's people y ordenances, i^ the 
unseasonableness of seeking of greate things, the lord 
plucking up what he hath planted, iffc, though I might 
render some excuses, yet I forbear Iff doe acknowledge my 
neglede in not writeinge unto you long ere this, iff return- 
ing a thankfull acknowledgement of your love in setting 
before me such grave exhortations . . . lemations, let 
the righteous smite me, it shall not ( break) my head, noe, 
it shall be a healing balsome. I have forsaken yourselfe 
and others against my . . . posses in distance of place, yet 
I hope and live by his grace never shall in afFedlion till my 
dying day, and the ordenances with you both in Church 
iff Commonwealth, are to me the ordenances of the lord 
Jesus. And the lord hath begunne to let me see by ex- 
perience that a man's comfort doth not depende in the 
multitude of those things he doth possesse, the lord have- 
ing this last winter taken from me a larg Corn Barne which 
did cost me above or aboute i5o£, building, my farm house, 
12 Oxen, 8 Cowes, 6 other beasts, in which bowses was my 
Corne for Seed, and spending and paying my debts, the 
fyer breaking forth in the night, neither heeding nore 
household stuff, nore so much as my servants wering cloth, 
nothing but the shertes of their backs was saved, and lives 


to the valew of 4 or 50o£. And yet blessed be his name, he 
is the portion of my sowle, I shall not wante, he hathe by 
one pvidence or other pvided for me a considerable surplys, 
so that I have enough, blessed be his name. And being 
nowe in writeinge, I shall make bould to ade a word to 3 
or 4 pticulers in yors to Mr. Brenton and Mr. Balstone (my 
loving friends), ^ in them to me you desire they much 
consider in what relation they stand to the Church and 
Commonwealth wth you for the Church to answer for 
itselfe, we being not to . . . doe look at that Church 
Meeting at Mr. Balstone's . . . wch I was advised to 
remaine and Comended to the grace of god . . . christ 
Jesus in so doing, and the sermon concerning of it the . . . 
lord does that wher ther wer not churches to comend ther 
brethern unto, ther they might comend them to the grace 
of god, ^c, to carie with it the force of a dismishon wch 
is not my light alone, but of the reverent and larned, I 
desire that this lynne of devishon was removed, that I 
might have such free acsesses to all as to see their faces 
wth comfort, and to ptake with you in the ordenances. 
2ly. For the Comonwealth the difference arose about Mr. 
Wheelwright [s] banishment of which he is released (as I 
am informed), but if it was a meanes in rayseing any un- 
quietnes in the Comonwealth, I shall upon information 
indevor to give satisfaction, the lord so helping me. 

3ly. For Gorton as he came ther be of the Island before 
I knew of it, and is here againest my mynd, so shall he 
not by me be ptedled. I could have hartely desired for 
the god I pfesse of both plantations, that we had not bene 
rejected in alyance wth you aboute the Indeans, wch now 
the generaletie here will be averse from, the trewth is, here 
is a pty wch doe adhere unto Gorton & his Company in 
both the plantations, i^ Judge them so much strength to 
the place wch be neither frinds to you note us. Now the 
trewth is, I desire to have either such alyence with yor- 


selves or Plimouth, one or both, as might be safe for us all. 
I have my cheefe intrest the Island, it being bought to me 
y my friends, and how inconvenient it might be if it were 
possessed by an enemye lying in the heart of the planta- 
tions y convenient for shiping, I cannot but see I want 
both Counsell ^ Strength to effedl what I desire. I desire 
to hear from you i^ that you would burye what I write in 
deepe silence, for what I write I never impted to any, nor 
would to you had I the least doubt of yor faythfuUness 
that it should be uttered to my prejudice, 
for Morton he was . . . who was for the King at his first 
comeing to Portsmouth, iff would report to such as he 
judged to be of his mynd, he was glad [to be met with] so 
many Caveleres, to Mr. Hart (as I am informed) of Co- 
hannet, he discoursed something in this way, l^ after 
doubted he was not trew, iff he had lands to dispose of to 
his followers in each province, from Cape Ann to Cape Cod 
was one he did iff disposed of to Lambert Woodward. My 
Tenant Gould was his hosthouse, he being much taken 
with him, iff towld me wch I will afferme with my oath, 
that he had land to dispose of in each plantation a . . . 
his son John some land, iff tht he had wronge in the bay 
[to the] valew of 20o£, i^ mayd bitter complaints thereof 
but Morton would let it rest as he tould me till the Gover- 
nor came over to right him, ^ did intimate he knew whose 
roste his spits iff jacks turned, ^c, but I feare tediousness, 
iff therefore wth the tender of my love to the Govr yorselfe 
Mr. Dudly iff who also remember me, I take leave iff rest. 
Yors, Wm Coddington. 

Newport, Aug. 5, 1644 

Pesecus nore Canonecus have not sent unto me since I 
rejected a present of 30 fingers iff thumes after first attempt. 

Osemecome was last Satterday at my house, iff doth 
say he is all one hart wth . . . iff sayth that Canonecus 


sent him to borrow some peeces he hath to goe againe . . . 
the next weeke, which he refused to lend. [I] told him he 
did well so to doe, ^ to ... he knew . . . vale. " (Mass. 
Archives 2, 5; N. H. M. v. 3, p. i.) 

"To his honnered friend 
John Winthrop Esq 

Gor of the Massachusets p mr Robt Jefferye" 

"Honnered Sr 

I thought meet to informe yow that yor sonn mr John 
y all his, Depted from or Island of the 3 day in the morne- 
ing arely, the wynd being not good to Carye them further 
then block Island, but of the 4 Day in the morneing it was 
very good, so tht I Doubt not they were all safely arrived 
before the Storme begane: by whome I receaved yor letr of 
the 21 of the 8-46. for Gorton ^ his Companye they are to 
me as ever they have bene, their freeDom of the Island is 
Dennyed, y was when I accepted of the place I nowe beare. 
the Comishoners have Joyned them in the same Charter, 
tho we mentayne the Govermtt as before, to further that 
end yow write of, I sent to Mr. Cotton to be Delivered to 
Mr. Elott, tht requested it, wt was entered upon record 
under the Secretaryes hand, wch I Doe think yow may 
Doe well to mak use of, because I heare it sinkes most wth 
the Earle, wher they had libertie of consyence. Mr. Fetters 
writes in tht yow sent to yor sonn, tht yow psecute. l^ soe 
in hast I rest not Doubting as accatione serves to approve, 
my self. 

Yors ever 
Newport Novr. Wm Coddington 


my purposse is er long to come in to the baye. I Desire 
to be rembered to all tht remember me." (N. E. H. i^ 
G. R. 4, 221.) 


"To the Worll: Jo: Winthrop, these present, 

Worthy Sr — Respedls presented ^c: My bro: (who allso 
presents the like) having formerly related unto me your 
desire of Inlish hay seede, with the great benifite of it unto 
your Plantation, upon which I had reserved out of what I 
had promised what might serve your occations, yet since, 
it seemes, you have been pleased (supposinge incoveniencys) 
to with draw yor pleasure; but therein my bro thinks you 
will bereave your Plantation of an unknowne beni[fit] and 
being a well wisher to your Plantation, having such an 
oppertunitye, and such season to sowe it, I have ventered 
the sending, and hath informed Mr. Throgmorton, who 
allsoe hath much experience, how you shall order the same. 
There is 12 bushell heaped for allowence, in which is 5 
sorts of seed [torn] will be both for moouing ^ feeding of 
cattle. I sell it here at 5s the bushell, concerning wch I 
have expressed my mind to Mr. Throgmorton, yor con- 
veniencys iff benifite of plantation being much desired. 
By yors to command Robert Williams. 

Providence, 18 Apl., 1647" (M. H. S. C. 5, i, 343.) 

**To the Worshipful! his much honnored frind John Win- 
thrope Jur Esqr at his plantation at Kaninicute, dd. 

Per Tho. Stanton. 

Worthy Sir, — My best resped:es from my selfe, as allsoe 
my wifes, salute yow iff yours. Sir, I recaived yours of the 
17 of the present, to which I answer I intend to sell tenn 
ewes, most of them are as we calle them quine ewes, bringes 
two at a tyme, iff few of them ould. Two ewes here in 
exchange ordenariely is given for a cowe, iff the trewth is 
one ewe is as much profitt to me as a cowe. Nowe, Sir, 
my price to yow is, and under which I will not sell them, 


for I cann have more for them, 20 h in silver, English monye, 
I desire, paid in the Baye the 20 or the 21 of June next, for 
them I have accation to make use of it, and then I shall 
with in a weeke or tenn dayes after the recaite, deliver tenn 
to Mr. Smyth of Newhaven, or whome yow appoynte, who 
is to bringe me two Cottsewell rambes, i^ is to have black 
ewes for them (in Hfetenant Gardners shalupe) if yow take 
order with him accordingly, who is about that tyme to be 
heare, of the Island, in hope to procuer some sheepe for 
New haven. Now, Sir, my desire is in the first place to 
pleasuer yow, ^ because I would not be disappoynted to 
answer my accations in the Baye, I desire your speedie 
answer with in 14 dayes or three weeks, the souner the 
better, for I dennye Secounke men till I heare from yow, 
iff allsoe Newhaven ^ others. Ther will be no sheepe let 
of the Island, ^ those that are let are to the fowerths, for 
they do ordaneriely duble in a yeare, Iff more, for the 1am- 
bes have lambs when they are a yeare ould; for here is noe 
woolves of the Hand but one or 2 that wos when yow were 
here. Thus expeding your speedie answer, in hast, I 
seasse from writeing, but not from remayneing Yours ever 

Wm Coddington. 

Newport, Rod Island, Aprill 20, 1647." (M. H. S. C. 4, 
6, 320.) 

"To the Worll. John Winthrop in Nameag in Pecod this 

Portsmouth this 22 day of Maye 1647. 
Honnerd Ser, — I am bould to present these fewe lynes 
unto you in the behalfe of naybor Capting Morris, that 
have lattly lost his Indean mayde-servant, and as we sopose 
is com into your libertyes, by the intisement of her father 
and her unkell, that have latly bin at Capt Morrises howse 
and lovvingly entertaynned and so have bine from time 


[to time,] but at ther last being heare have tacken her 
away with them, as I am imformed. Her father's name is 
Quason and the mayd have a great cut in her face by the 
ie, and, as she have informed, she have a cusen Hving with 
you; therfor my request is that you be pleased, in the 
Captings behafe, to macke inquiery for her, and if found, 
to cause her to be sent home agayne unto her master, or 
so much wampom as may purches eather an other Indean 
or blackmor; for Mrtris Morris is agged and weack, and 
is in great destres for want of a survant, and also be plessed 
to understand she was a chilld of death, dehvered to hime 
by the Bay in time of the Pecod ware, and lad by tow 
yeares under the surgens handes. 

Ser, the grounds of her going away I know not, for she 
was, to my knowledg, well kept and much tendered, both 
by master and mistris, and allso marradg have bine ten- 
dered unto her; but I macke to bold, only be plessed to 
tender mistris Morrises condistyon, and so presuming 
upon your redynes to do this fafour I tack leave, 
Youers in the lick or any other sarvis 

William Baulston. 

My selfe and wife present our sarvis of love to your selfe 
and Mistris Winthrop." (M. H. S. C. 5, i, 344.) 

Honered Sir; — I reseyved your loving letters, for wch 
I thanke you, and I had saluted you wth the like, but had 
noe oppertunity sence to send to you, for both Thomas 
Stanton and Mr. Throckmorton fayled to call on me, altho 
I desired it, but now I have sent you, 12 boshells of hey- 
seed. I filled the sakes, becase I know you will not repent 
it y also I want corne. Thomas Stanton tould me he 
would have more, but he could not put in at our towne 
as he came back, but if you have not soe much corne for 


present, I shall willingly stay till you have it. Thomas 
Stanton gave me a boshell i^f halfe for a boshell, for he 
held his corne at 3s. 4d. wth us, but sould it at last (at the 
other end) for 2s. 2d.; but a boshell i^ a halfe I am con- 
tented to take you, altho they that bought the corne of 
Tho. Stanton sells it for 2s 8d, ^ I sell my heyseed for 5s 
a boshell. What corne you send, if you put it in the sakes 
y leave it [at] your Hand, Mr. Throckmorto will sail for 
it there. I did inquire about sheep as you desired, i^ find 
none willing [to] put any out. I am informed JVIr Alme 
at Portsmoth will sell some. The last weeke we had a 
Generale Court of the Province, and ther was a generall 
agreament (beyond expedlatio) to the satisfadlio of all. 
Ther was only 2 adls passed wherin a considerable party 
were unsatisfied, iff the next day they were altered, soe that 
all were satisfied. The lawes of England are established 
wth very litle variatio, ^ the lawes of Oleron or sea lawes. 
for sea men, y the Court (thorow the earnest suit of many 
wth us) have made an order, that the Dutchmen shall pay 
the same customes wth us that we pay wth them, iff that 
they shall not trad wth the Indians in our Provice (unles 
they allow us free trad wth them) upon forfeyture of ther 
goods, only I gott this thus fare moderated that the Gor 
should first be informed, iff his answere to be considered 
on by the Court, before it be put in operatio. Sir, Captayne 
IVIoris sent me this note to informe me tht I might writt 
to you, but the messenger staying I cannot writt it out; 
he desires you will be pleased to doe what you can in it, 
for his wife is much straitned for want of her. Soe wth 
my love remembered to your selfe iff wife, I take leave, but 
desire ever to remain your affedlionate friend to serve you 

John Coggeshall. 

You may sow this hayseed now if you spred the hills, 
or upon other ground if you mow downe the grase or weeds 


twise this sumer; but upon ground tht have bin planted 
(the hills being spred) it will come soner to perfedlid y les 
seed lost. 

Newport, this 24 of May, 47" (M. H. S. C. 5, i, 346) 

'*To his assuered lo: frind Mr. Jo: Winthrope, dd. Per 
Robt. Bull. 

Mr. Jo: Winthrope and My Indeared Frind, — I kindly 
salute yow iff yours Sir, I have, accordeing to your desire, 
sent yow but tenn ewes; they are all, I doe assuer yow, 
of the best English breed. I could have sent yow longe 
leged y biger sheepe, but these are better breed. I have 
sent yow five blacke y five whit. I judged it best so to doe, 
yow not expressinge your desire to me. They are all but 
sherings, that is, one yeare ould at last lambeinge, cif nowe 
yeening of two, which is knowne by their teeth, none of 
them haveinge above two brod teeth. I have sent you a 
rambe lambe which is of my English breed lickewise, both 
by the ewe iff rambe. I know the Hand nore the cuntrie 
could not have furnished yow with such a parsell of sheepe, 
out of my hand. I have write unto you two letters, which 
I do perceive yow have not received. I am glad I was on 
the Hand to deliver your sheepe my selfe. If yow desire 
to have more whit sheepe then blacke, then rambe your 
ewes with whit rambs; if more blacke then yow may save 
a blacke rambe out of your breed of blacke ewes; but by 
all meanes put not to your rambes till the latter end of the 
next month, November. Lond delivered shorte of tenn 
pounds, 2s 6d., iff Rich. Rayment detaynes ids 6d of myne 
in his hand for woole yow had of him. You may pleasse 
to order me it in the Baye, whither I now am hasting to 
take passage for England with my doughter. Sir, if in any 
thing I may be serviceable to yow ther, yow may com- 


maunde me. Let me have your letter to Mr. Fetters; & 
soe I bid yow hartely fairewell. If wee never se one another 
againe, yet we part in trew love. Yours truly, 

Wm Coddington. 
Octor 14, 1648. 

Sir, I pray yow send me my note." 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, jun., "Mr. Coddington 
about the sheepe sent per Robert Bull, y directions about 
them." (M. H. S. C. 4, 7, 280.) 

Seal of Daniel Gould 


Adams, Nathaniel, Ii8 
Albro, John, 64, 128, 148, 161 
Allen, George, 118 

, John, 142 

, Ralph, 118 

, Samuel, 118 

Allerton, Isaac, 133, 138, 139 

Almy, William, 139, 145, 148, 149, 151, 

IS7. 183 
Andrews, Edward, 119, 141, 142, 147 
Anthony, John, 103, 119, 128, 132, 134, 

137, 139, 14s, 150, 161 
Applegate, Thomas, 133, 135, 141, 147, 

149, 161 
Arnold, Benedict, 15, 165 

, Damaris, 165 

, John, 44, 117 

Aspinwall, William, 15, 19, 21, 23, 33, 

35, so, SI, s6, 58, 67, 89, 90, 116, 

Assotemuit, 27 
Atkinson, Thomas, 132 
Awards, Richard, S9> 95, II7> 120, 128, 

132, 134, 151, IS4, 157 

Babcock, James, 139, 148 

Backus, Isaac, 2S 

Baker, William, 42, 118 

Baldwin, George, IS7, is8 

Ballard, Robert, 134 

Barker, James, 128, ISS 

Bartlett, John, 79, 119 

, John R., S9, 60 

Baulstone, William, 19, 33, 34, 36-39, 
44, 45, 60, 64, 66, 67, 79, 89,9s, 
96, 100, 107, 109, IIS, II9» 121, 
123, 127, 136, 138, 146, 156-158, 
161, 167, 172, 177, 182 

Baylie, Robert, 28, 60 
Beeder, Thomas, 51, 58, 117, 136, 137 
Bennett, Robert, 139, 150, 152, 155 
Bishop, Henry, 103, 108, 1x8, 119, 132, 

133, I39> 143 
Bliss, George, 137 
Block, Adrian, 12, 13 
Borden, Richard, 37, 38, 49, 96, 104, 

117, 120, 132, 134, 137, 140, 148, 

153, 155. 156, 158 
Bradstreet, Mr., 171 
Browce (Brace), Edward, 103, 119 
Brassy, Thomas, 132, 133, 146, 147 
Brayton, Francis, 150 
Brenton, Benjamin, 74 

, Elizabeth C, 74 

, William, 42-46, 48, 49, 51, 55, 

66, 71. 74. 75. 94. 95. 97. 103, 

105, 107, IIS, 119. 121. 132. 137. 

138, 140, 144, 147, 161, 167, 177 
Brewster, Mr., 92 
Briggs, John, 53, 59, 116, 117, 119, 121, 

125, 134-136, 138, 139, 142. 145. 

149. 157 
Brightman, John, 20 
Brooks, Thomas, 128, 132, 151, 154 
Brown, Chad, 156 

, Nicholas, 59, 64, 117, 149 

Browning, Nathaniel, 138, 146 

Bull, Henry, 19, 33, 39, 43, 45, 48, 51, 

70, 71, 76, 95, 96, 108, 119, 122, 

135. 139-141, 143, 150, 154. 161 

, Robert, 184, 185 

Bullock, Erasmus, 58, 117 
Burrwood, Thomas, 79 
Burt, James, 119, 167 
Burton, Thomas, 118, 139, 151 
Button, Mr., 92 


Callender, John, 35, 92, 93, 105 

Canonicus, 24-27, 77, 178 

Carder, Richard, 19, 24, 30, 33, 39, 41, 

42, 45, 48, dTy 95, 116, 120, 121, 

Carr, Robert, 53, 117, 119, 136 
Champlin, Jeffrey, 30, 56, 103, 117, 119, 

132, 134, 135, 137, 145, 146, 148, 

Chapman, William, 136 
Charles I, 58, 77 
Clark, Jeremy, 48, 71, yG, 78, 79, 82, 

95, 96, 109, 118, 119, 122, 128, 

132, 136, 139, 146, 148, 153, 156, 

157, 161, 175 
, John, 16, 18-21, 24, 34, 37, 39, 

41-43, 45, 48, 49, 61, 71, 75, 78, 

83, 84, 86, 92, 93, 95, 112, 119, 

126, 144, 156, 
, Joseph, 53, 80, 93, 95, 117, 120, 

, Thomas, 20, 80, 93, 94, 117, 120 

. 134 

Cleare, George, 59, 117, 150 

Coddington, Mary, 33 

, William, 11, 19, 21, 23-25, 29, 30, 

33-45. 47. 48. 52, 55-57. 64, 6^, 
68-73. 75. 76, 80, 84-86, 91, 94, 

95, 97, loi, 105, 107, 112, 119, 
121, 132, 134, 136, 143, 145, 147, 
150, 156-158, 162, 165, 167, 171, 
175, 176, 178, 179, 181, 185 

Coggeshall, John, 19, 33-39, 43-46, 48, 
49. 53. 55. 66, 71, 79, 89, 91, 94, 

96, 100, 106, 107, 109, 112, 115, 
119, 121, 135, 136, 147, 149, 152, 
161, 167, 183 

, John, Jr., 128 

Collins, Mr., 128 

Cornell, Thomas, 98, 108, 119, 123, 128, 

132, 135, 148, 154 
Cory, John, 150 
Cotterell, Nicholas, 118, 135, 138, 143, 

145, 147, 149, 152, 154, 161 
Cotton, John, 22, 28, 90, 168, 174, 179 

Cowland, Ralph, 16, 98, 119, 123, 132, 

134, 138, 155 
Cowley, William, 30, 56, 73, 80, 94, 

117, 120, 134 
Crandall, John, 145, 149 
Cranston, John, 128 

Davis, James, 59, 117 

, Nicholas, 118 

Dolling, John, 153 

Doughty, Francis, 85, 86 

Doutch, Osamund, 42, 51, 117 

Dudley, Mr., 178 

Dummer, Richard, 42, 43, 116 

, Stephen, 42 

, Thomas, 42 

Durdall, Hugh, 73, 118, 171 

Dyre, Mary, 90 

, William, 19, 24, 29, 30, 34-37, 

39, 41-43, 45, 46, 48-50, 56-58, 
71, 75, 78, 83, 91, 94-97, 100, 104, 
107, 114, 119, 121, 136, 138, 140, 

141, 147, 152, 158, 165 

Earle, Ralph, 59, 81, 117, 132, 138-140, 

142, 146-148, 150, 151, 158, 160 
Easton, Jonathan, 74 

, Nicholas, 33, 3^38, 41-46, 48, 

49. 51, 53. 55. ^1^ 71. 74-76, 78, 
79, 83, 84, 94, 96, 103, 109, 112, 
114, 117, 119, 121, 138, 139, 141, 

143, 146, 147, 149, 151, 156-158, 
161, 164, 165 

, Peter, 38, 69, 128 

Eaton, Theophilus, 105, 166 

Eliot, John, 179 

Emmons, Thomas, 95, 117, 120, 132, 

139. 145 
Endicott, John, 171 
England, William, 151 

Field, Robert, 43, 80, 94, 1 18 

, William, 134, 139 

Fisher, Edward, 63 

Foster, William, '](>, 78, 95, 118, 119, 
132, 149, 150 



Foster, Willliam, Jr., 133, 135 

Francis I, i 

Free, John, 151 

Freeborne, William, 19, 33, 34, 36, 39, 
41, 42, 44, 45, 48, 60, 63, 67, 9S, 
119, 122, 132, 134, 139, 14s, ISO, 

Fugall, Mr., 166 

Gardiner, George, 64, 66, 80, 95, 117, 

122, 128, 132, 134, 148, 150, 152, 

Gibbs, John, 135, 139 
Gibbons, Edward, 86, 87 
Gilbert, Mr., 166 
Gilham, Robert, 118 
Gorton, Samuel, 47, 48, 54, 56-58, 66, 

68, 84, 86, 97, 117, 164, 165, 167, 

177, 179 
, Thomas, 108, 120, 122, 128, 132, 

148, 151, 161 

, wife of Thomas, i6i 

Gould, Daniel, 155, 185 

, Jeremy, 103, 118, 119, 132, 134, 

135. 137. 139, 149. 151. 154-158, 

161, 162, 173, 178 

, Thomas, 128, 155, 156 

, Mrs., 158 

Greene, John, 31, 154 
Greenman, David, 142, 154 

, Edward, 155 

.John, 119, 153 

Gregson, Mr., 130 
Griffin, Robert, 154, 155 
Grinnell, Matthew, 119 

Hakluyt, 6 

Hall, John, 118, 145, 148, 151 

, William, 20, 58, 117 

Hammond, George, 153, 155 
Harding, Philippa, 90 

, Robert, 42, 43, 107, 112, 119, 126, 

141-143, 14s, 149 
Hardy, John, 128 
Hart, Mr., 178 

Havens, William, 59, 118, 138, 142, 147 
Hawkins, Job, 59, 62, 95, 117, 120, 132, 

, Richard, 63, 132, 137, 148, 151 

, 13s 

Haynes, Mr., 105 
Hazard, Edward, 70 

, Thomas, 23, 71, 74, 75, 94, 117, 

120, 134 
Helme, Christopher, 137 
Heme, 41, 84 

Hibbins, William, 86, 87, 169, 173 
Hicks, Herod, 151, 152 
, John, 103, 118, 120, 134, 148, 151, 

Hill, Valentine, 52, 53 
Hitt, Thomas, 118 
Hobbs, Robert, 143, 144, 150 
Holden, Randall, 19, 24, 27, 28, 30, 

34» 37» 39, 40-43. 45, 48, 95, "6, 

120, 121, 124 
Holliman, Ezekiel, 83, 85, 92, 93, 133, 

138, 139, 147, 156 

, Mary, 115, 138, 139 

Holmes, Obadiah, 120 
Hopkins, Mr., 105 
Horndall, John, 153-155 
How, 149 

Hubbard, Samuel, 93 
Hudson, John, 79 
Humphreys, Mr., 171 
Hunt, Bartholomew, 155, 158 

, Enoch, 118 

Hutchinson, Anne, 18, 23, 32, 33, 38, 

41, 44, 47, SI, S2, 5S-57, 66, 68, 

84, 89, 90, 97, III, 127, 128, 167 
, Edward, Senr., 19, 33, 34, 37, 

39, 41, 42, 45, 46, 52, 67, 120, 128 

, , Jr.', 19, 37, 39, 120 

, Francis, 85, 92, 103 

, Samuel, 37, 38, 58, 93, 95, 103, 

117, 120 
-T — , William, 19, 24, 34, 36-39, 41-45, 

57-59, 64, 67, 68, 89, 95, 96, 100, 

103, 120, 173 



James, Thomas, 127, 166 

Jennings, Thomas, 149 

Jefferey, William, 154, 157 

Jeoffries, Robert, 42, 45, 49, 50, 68, 
7S» 76, 78, 79. 9S. 96, 100, 103, 
108, 109, no, 113-115, 118, 119, 
121-123, 126, 128, 179 

Johnson, John, 20, 117 

Jones, Thomas, 175 

Keayne, 23, 91, 92 
Knight, Richard, 157 

■ , Toby, 95, 118, 120, 123, 128, 132, 

134, 136, 137, 14s, 148, 149, 

Knolles, Mr., 127 
Knowles, Henry, 148, 150 

Ladd, Joseph, 138 
Laet, Johannes de, 12, 13, 15 
Lamberton, Mr., 130 
Lawton, George, 59, 65, 151 

, John, 118, 161 

, Thomas, 59, 65, 117, 118, 148, 158 

. 145 

Lechford, Thomas, 85, 86 

Lenthal, Robert, 85, 86, 88, 92, 98, 105, 

112, 116, 119, 120, 121, 151 
Lettice, Walter, 157 
Long, Herodias, 152 
Lukar, Mark, 93 
Lutner, John, 44, 46 

Macunmore, John, 119 

Marshall, John, 51, 117 

Maxon, Richard, 51, 58, 117 

Merchant, John, 118 

Merritt, Ezekiel, 119 

Miantonomi, 24-27, 72, 73, 77, loi, 125 

Mishammoh, 27 

Mompaucke, 77 

More, John, 59, 118 

Morris, Mrs., 181, 182 

, Richard, no, 120, 123, 128, 132, 

134, 137, 140, 142, 14s, 146, 
149, 153-155. 157. 161, 181-183 

Morton, 67, 178 

Mott, Adam, 43, 48, 68, 95, 96, 104, 

118, 119, 123, 134, 138, 161 
, John, 66, 118, 136 

Needham, William, 118 
Newman, Mr., 166 
Newton, Thomas, 153 
Nowell, Mr., 171 

Oliver, John, 86-88 
Ousamequin, 40, 178 
Owen, Thomas, 147 

Paine, Anthony, 59, 66, 118, 133, 137, 

Palmer, Mr., 171 
Pardie, John, 157 
Parker, George, 44, 95, 117, 120, 121, 

125, 127, 128, 133, 137, 139 

, William, 119 

Partridge, Alexander, 155, 156 
Peckham, John, 93, 118, 120, 135, 137, 

PessecLis, 178 
Peters, Hugh, 179, 185 
Poole, Edward, 118 
Porter, John, 19, 24, 29, 33, 34, 36, 37, 

39, 42, 43, 45, 48, 49, 60, 63, 67, 

95, 96, 103, 107, 109, n6, ng, 

121, 144, 152, 156 
Potter, George, 59, 118 

, Nathaniel, 59, 118 

, Robert, 59, 63, 68, 118, 120, 121, 


Quason, 182 
Quick, William, 118 

Ramusio, 6, 11 
Raymond, Richard, 184 
Read, Thomas, 133, 138 
Readman, Richard, 142 
Rero, Edward, 119 

Richardson, William, 59, 118, 137, 139, 
141, 142, 147, 149, 158 



Richbell, John, 153 

Richmond, John, 137, 141, 145, 155, 161 

Robinson, Anthony, 44, 

, Edward, 134, 141, 143, 149, 150, 

152, 154 
Rogers, James, 103, 119, 120, 127, 137, 

Roome, George, 149 
, John, 58, 95, 118, 120, 132-135. 

137, 142, 14s, 150, 151 
Root, Robert, 119, 136 

Sabery, see Sabire 
Sabire, Barbara, 171-173 

, James, 171-173 

, Thomas, 73, 118, 170 

Salter, Sampson, 119, 140 
Sanford, John, 19, 24, 29, 34-45, 60, 
67, 89, 95, 96, 103, 104, 120, 128, 


, P., 26 

Savage, James, 18 

, Thomas, 19, 33, 120 

Savory, see Sabire 

Searle, Richard, 30, 73, 117 

Sherman, PhiHp, 19, 33, 34, 36, 41, 44, 

48, 60, 67, 95, 96, 119 
Shotten, Sampson, 58, 95, 116, 118, 120, 

121, 124 
Slade, Thomas, 63, 137, 142 
Sloff, John, 58, 117 
Smith, John, 118, 119, 120, 122, 128, 

137, 139, 140, 147, 148, 15s 

, Richard, 46, 119 

, Samuel, 44 

, Mr. (of New Haven), 181 

Spencer, Mr., 43 

Spicer, Thomas, 58, 63, 96, 117, 119, 

121, 123, 132, 134 
Stafford, Thomas, 118, 143, 145 
Stanton, Robert, 44, 51, 59, 66, 80, 95, 

117, 120, 123, 128, 134, 135, 137, 

149, 154, iss 

, Thomas, 180, 182 

Stretton, John, 149 

Sutherland, Matthew, 118 

, widow, 140 

Sweet, Mary, 138, 139 

Tarr, James, 43, 118, 134 

Tefft, John, 148 

Tew, Richard, 133, 134, 141 

, Thomas, 149 

Thompson, 127 

Thornton, John, 93 

Throckmorton, John, 128, 161, 180, 182 

Timberlake, Henry, 128, 157 

Touzar, Gilian, 137 

Tripp, John, 59, 117 

Trumbull, 130 

Turner, Capt., 130, 166 

Tyler, Job, 118, 141, 142, 149 

Vane, Sir Henry, 25, 78, 126 

Vaughn, Gilian, 137 

, John, 44, 64, 118, 137, 145, 153, 


, William, 93 

Verrazzano, Giovanni da, i 

Waite, Thomas, 63, 120 

Walker, John, 19, 34, 36, 39, 45, 48, 

60, 67, 95, 119, 132, 134, 15s 
Wall, John, 60 
Walton, Henry, 15, 155 
Wampammaquitt, 77 
Ward, Marmaduke, 103, 118, 120, 134, 

137, 148, 153-ISS 
Washagansett, 73 
Weeden, James, 148, 152 

, , Jr., 154 

, William, 93, 152, 154 

West, John, 161 

, Nathaniel, 93 

, Robert, 129 

Wheelwright, 32, 174, 177 

Wickes, John, 58, 63, 117, 124, 125, 134 

Wilbur, Samuel, 19, 33, 34, 36, 39, 41, 

42, 44-46, 48, 50, 52, 53, 64, 81, 

95, 109, 119, 128, 14s, 147, 148 

192 INDEX 

Wilbur, Samuel, Jr., 128 Winthrop, John, 15, 18, 19, 21, 22, 26, 
Wilcox, Edward, 117 32, 33, 38, 41, 51, 52, 55-57, 59, 
Willd, Nicholas, 161 85, 104, iii, 127, 130, 166, 167, 
Williams, Robert, 180 171, 173, 175, 178-182, 184 
, Roger, 15, 17, 22, 24, 26-31, 40, Winthrop, Mrs. 167, 180, 182, 185 

59, 60, 68, 86, 92, 125, 156, 180 Withrington, William, 117, 137, 138, 

Williamson, Michael, 118, 120, 134, 135, 141, 143-146, 157, 161 

146, 147 Wonnumetonomey, 24, 26-28, 73 

Willis, Jeremy, 154, 155, 157 Wood, John, 141, 142, 154, 157 

Willmore, George, 44 Woodward, Lambert, 142, 178 
Wilson, Samuel, 155 

, Mr., 91 Yarrow, John, 132, 138, 140 

Winslow, Edward, 165 Yotuesh, 27 

H 99 78 -M 

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